December 5th, 2013

Qur’an 112; 113; 114

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!

Page 604ArabicQur’an

سورة الإخلاص

‘Purity of Faith/ The Declaration of God’s Perfection’

 

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

“This early Makkan Surah sums up in a few terse words the Unity of the Godhead—often professed, but frequently mixed up in the popular mind with debasing superstitions.”

 

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“AS REPORTED in a great number of authentic Traditions, the Prophet was wont to describe this surah as “equivalent to one-third of the whole Qur’an” (Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Hanbal, Abu Da’ud, Nasa’i, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah). It seems to have been revealed in the early part of the Mecca period.”

COMMENTS:

What a magnificent Chapter this is, obviously revealed early-on in Mecca, introducing God to the world: ‘Call out/ Announce/ Say: He is……قل هو….. giving us His most important attributes, so Humanity can recognize WHO God is (i).

In this Chapter, we first hear the announcement that ‘He is Allah, ONE.‘ Note that the designation of ‘One’ does not have a definite article sharing space with it -the verse says ‘Allah, AHad,’ rather than ‘Allah, al Ahad,’ or ‘the One.’ This statement is absolute and true, and is more powerful WITHOUT ‘the’ definite article: Without the definite article, it indicates that there is NO other ‘Allah/ God,’ regardless of whether or not people believed in another ‘Ilaah/ deity.’ This is because the word ‘Allah’ in Arabic is unique to God Himself; it is far stronger than the English word ‘God,’ because there is no plural to it, and no one and nothing is called ‘Allah’ except Him.

Then the second verse tells us that He is ‘Allah, The Immutable Purpose (of everythingصمد/ SamaDh (ii). As our 1030 year old Lexicon tells us, SamaDh indicates firmness, stability, and constancy on one hand, AND what is a destination for all beings on another (as well as a source of inspiration). It is He Who is our constant Intent and Aspiration. (Readers might enjoy reading philosophical arguments on the existence of God- google the ‘Unmoved Mover’ and the ‘Uncaused Cause.’)

Then, the final two verses tell us a few facts of paramount importance about God, that ‘He did not beget (offspring), and He was not begotten, and there never was anyone alike/ equal (iii) to Him.

Beautiful. Concise. Supremely eloquent.

Yet, there were people who did not get it. That is why so many verses have elaborated on these statements.

Important observation:

Let us, with the help of our Tanzil search-engine, try to assess the value of the introductory verse: ‘Call out/ Announce/ Say: He is……’

When we put in the two words قل هو , we find that there are only six such instances in the Qur’an (iv), where God tells His Messenger to ‘Call out/ Announce/ Say: He (God) is……قل هو-.

When we study those six verses, we notice that they summarize the entire spectrum of the Human relationship with our Unique Creator/ Al RaHmaan (v)…!!

From the very beginning, when He created us, to giving us our senses, to dispersing us throughout the earth, to sending us Messengers who recited/ conveyed His Signs to us, to the denial “كفر/ kufr” of some, the lack of productivity شكر/ shukr” of others, while there were those who were announcing their faith and reliance on their Sustainer (vi), Al RaHmaan… to the suffering some shall inevitably taste -often at each other’s hands, and finally, to our being gathered together for judgement.

Peace unto all!

سورة الفلق

‘The Beginning’

 

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

“This early Makkan Surah provides the antidote to superstition and fear by teaching us to seek refuge in God from every kind of ill arising from outer nature and from dark and evil plottings and envy on the part of others.”

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“WHEREAS most of the commentators assign this and the next surah to the early part of the Mecca period, some authorities (e.g., Razi, Ibn Kathir) consider them to have been revealed at Medina, while yet others (e.g., Baghawi, Zamakhshari, Baydawi) leave the question open. On the basis of the scant evidence available to us it appears probable that both these surahs are of early Meccan origin.”

COMMENTS:

These final two Chapters were probably revealed quite early-on in Mecca, and are commonly known as the “Mu’awwathateyn-المعوّذَتَين..” the two chapters of ‘Refuge’ (see definition / عوذ(vii).

We’ve already spoken of something similar, where the Messenger/ Listener was told to seek refuge in ‘God/ Allah’ Himself (read the important notes below viii).

Today however, in Chapter 113, we are told to seek refuge in Him as ‘Rabb/ Lord Sustainer of the Falaq/ the Beginning/ Initiation (of all creation. See definition ix).’

No sooner does the Believer pronounce the first verse in this Chapter -as told to do- than each of us finds ourself seeking -AND being granted- refuge in the Lord Sustainer of the Beginning / Rabb-il- Falaq’ (see footnote for reminder on ‘Rabb’ x).

Check out the four instances when variations of the root-verb ‘falaqa’ are mentioned in the Qur’an; note how the consecutive verses in HQ 6:95-96 show us clearly that it is about God ‘cleaving asunder,’ splitting the ‘seeds of Life’ to bring out Life from Death, Death from Life, and also about the ‘break’ of morning, the sun and the moon.

Therefore, it is in The Rabb/ Lord of all Beginnings that we seek refuge from the following dangers (literal interpretation below):

  • (Verse 2) From the ‘worst/ most harmful’ of what He has created.

  • (Verse 3) And from the ‘badness/ harmfulness’ of a Darkener/ Darkened if/ when it/he is engulfed/ engulfs.

  • (Verse 4) And from the ‘badness/ harmfulness’ of the constant ‘Hissers into the knots.’

  • (Verse 5) And from the the ‘badness/ harmfulness’ of an Envier when/ if he happens to envy.

Note that Verse 2 seems all-inclusive, granting us refuge from the most harmful of every thing (maa-ما-).

Then, Verses 3-5 ask refuge from the harm that comes from certain people.

Verse 3 mentions the ‘Darkener/ Darkened’ -ghaasiq-(غاسق xi), which is probably not about dark surroundings (see 4 variations of root-verb in Qur’anxii), but rather, it seems to be about a person in dark desperation, which becomes dangerous WHEN AND IF (إذا) it happens to completely engulf (waqaba xiii). Why? Probably because that is when people tend to do something terribly wrong/ harmful, be it night or day.

Verse 4 mentions the harm of ‘Those who repeatedly ‘hiss/ blow’ نفث(xiv-subtly/ imperceptibly) into the ‘knots-عُقَد(xv).

Now, the traditional explanation of this verse is that it is about ‘female witches and the evil magic’ they perform. Why? Probably because the subject ‘al naffaathaat’ is feminine plural, and the object ‘uqad’ is the plural of ‘uqdah/ knot,’ which may be how ‘magic’ was performed at some point in time.

But that is NOT a researched explanation!

Let us see:

Linguistics: We first make sure that the singular of ‘uqad’ is ‘uqdah’ (xvi); it certainly is.

Qur’anic Context: We check our Qur’an search-engine Tanzil to see if ‘uqdah‘ is mentioned in Qur’an, and what it relates to. When we do that, we’re in for a surprise!

Uqdahappears 3 times in Qur’an:

    • Once, about a ‘tongue-tied’ speech-impediment.

      Therefore, we seek refuge in the Lord of the Falaq/ Beginning, from anyone who ‘hisses into this kind of knot,’ and is prone to taking advantage of people who are less eloquent, causing wrong judgement to be passed against others, for their own benefit (as in the famous Saying/ Hadeeth below xvii of the Prophet, peace upon him).

    • Twice about the Marriage knot.

What? The marriage knot? My God what a discovery! That means that the marriage agreement is NOT an ‘Aqd NikaaH عَقْد نكاح‘ as we have commonly been calling it for hundreds of years, but rather: It is a ‘Uqdah-ta NikaaH عُقدة نكاح.‘ Isn’t THAT a surprise? No wonder nobody thought of this most important of ‘knots/ uqad’ when they explained this verse (xviii)!

We have often spoken about the cherished marriage setting, and shown the SANCTITY of the Marriage Union when we’ve encountered related Qur’anic verses. No one and nothing should be allowed to damage this union, and anyone who is prone to do so, subtly dissolving ties and poisoning relationships, is ‘sharr/ evil.’ We ‘seek refuge in The Lord of the Falaq/ Beginning’ from such persons.

Q. Do I think that these are the only ways to understand these verses?

A. No. I am always open to a better understanding, based on language and context. Who knows what else may come up when I revise this entire project?

Aside:

For Readers who still think that this verse is specifically about being ‘put under a magic spell,’ I have two things to say:

-Firstly, what you may call magic is called ‘siHr’ in Arabic, and we have already proven from the Qur’an that ‘siHr’ is a combination of awe and deception (put words in ‘Search’).

-Secondly, when the Qur’an condemns those who practice ‘siHr’ in HQ 2: 102, it mentions, in particular, those whose purpose it is to cause separation amongst spouses.

THAT is what is most dangerous to society. Honorable relationships/ knots are supposed to be maintained; some are bound by contracts and agreements, and it is bad/ evil for a third party to work subtly and constantly to dissolve them.. and the MOST evil deed of all is the wrecking of a marriage. The family is the nucleus of society, and when the husband-wife relationship is healthy, one can expect a healthy society.

Therefore, since the verse does not allude to ‘siHr’ or mention it, it must remain open that this verse is about whoever/ whatever works at dissolving the ‘uqad/ knots’ of human relationships in general, and of marriage in particular.

Yet, dear Friends, bear in mind that although we may have uncovered what DOES seem to be the most plausible explanation, we should continue to think about this. Due mainly to our own departure from the eloquent Arabic of 1400 years ago, such verses are not easy to understand.

As we said above, Verse 2 seems all-inclusive, granting us refuge from the most harmful of every thing (maa-ما-) He created, while Verses 3-5 seem to mention seeking refuge from more specific harm.. the BEHAVIOR emanating from certain people:

  • The harm emanating from a person who happens to be in the darkness of Despair (xix), if and when the darkness closes in on him/ her.

  • The harm emanating from whoever ‘hisses’ subtly to dissolve ties, especially marriage/ family ties, and takes advantage of less eloquent people.

  • The harm emanating from a person who happens to be envious (of someone/ something xx), if and when s/he acts upon that envy (xxi).

Bear in mind that the misfortunes which befall us are from ‘ourselves’… they are the ‘earnings of human hands,’ as we’re told in HQ 4:79, 42: 30.

What this seems to indicate is that it is we people who actually ‘create’ our misdeeds, not God. Although He created us and we are not to blame for our natural tendencies, the way we act upon them is our choice.

When we seek refuge in Him from all harm AND from people who do wrong: We virtually CLOSE all our receptors to negative vibes.

Peace unto all!

سورة الناس

‘Cognizant Humans’

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

“This early Makkan Surah is a pendant to the last, and concludes the Holy Quran with an appeal to us to trust in God, rather than man, as our sure shield and protection. It warns us specially against the secret whispers of evil within our own hearts.”

 

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“SEE introductory note to the preceding surah, with which this one is closely connected.”

COMMENTS:

This Chapter is unlike the last. Although it is also about seeking refuge, here we are seeking refuge from only ONE THING: The Inaudible Inciter, who prods us to commit mis-deeds!

See five verses with variations of the root-verb ‘wasswassa,‘ and note that it is not only the Deviant/ SheyTaan (xxii) who does this kind of imperceptible prompting, but our own Selves as well.

In the last Chapter, we sought refuge in the Lord/ Sustainer of the Falaq/ Beginning, from ALL harm which He created, and from persons who do harm.

Here however, we seek refuge in Him as Lord of ‘Cognizant Humans’ from the harm which may take place from impulses within our Cognizance itself, whether it is coming to us from the Deviant/ Satan, another person, or from our own Selves!

As soon as we’ve pronounced the first verse of this Chapter -as told to do- each of us finds ourself seeking (and being granted) a ‘refuge in:

  • The Rabb/Lord Sustainer of (all) the Cognizant Humans.

    See eightverses which mention Rabb/ Lord + Cognizant Humans, and note that it is about worshipping Him, being aware of Him, recognizing the Truth, appreciating the Evidence, accepting His guidance, having faith in His Messenger, and being aware of the quaking of the (final) Hour. He is our Rabb, and after acknowledging that, we seek and find refuge in Him.

  • The Malek/ Sovereign-Custodian of (all) the Cognizant Humans.

    See HQ 3: 26- 27, and note that it is He who dignifies or degrades us, strengthens/ ennobles or weakens/ humiliates us, and He is over all things Capable. He is our Malek, and after acknowledging that, we seek and find refuge in Him.

  • The (Sole) Deity/ God of (all) the Cognizant Humans.

    See six verses which mention ‘Ilaah/Deity + Cognizant Humans,‘ and note that all these verses share one theme: That He is our Only Deity. He is our Ilaah, and after acknowledging that, we seek and find refuge in Him.

Therefore, we seek and find refuge in The Rabb of Cognizant Humans, The Malek of Cognizant Humans, The Ilaah of Cognizant Humans, from the harm/ badness of the ‘waswaas, the khannaas,’ the slinking inaudible Whisperer, who (in such manner) whispers in the ‘SuDoor/ Chests/ Heads’ of Cognizant Humans, of the Jinnah/ Incognito, Unseen Beings, AND the Cognizant Humans.

Thus, by having faith, closing our receptors, and placing our trust in God, our unique Rabb, Malek, and Ilaah, we have refuge in Him. Even if something seemingly harmful does befall us, He will ultimately turn it to our favor.

And so it is, dear Friends, that we have arrived at the end of this stage of the IQRA Challenge, which took four years to complete.

May God bless you all, and guide you to fulfillment in life, and joy in the Hereafter.

Amen.

Please pray for me.

I have a lot of work now, as I seek to validate the most important recoveries and bring them to a library near you!

Peace unto all!

A Prayer of Love

My heart with love for Thee doth beat a few

And miss a beat

As mine eyes with tears do fill

When I hear Thy name

For since I came to Thee my life

Hath been complete

Thine was the spark of guidance

That lit my flame

A flame of faith, of promise

Of devotion ever-bright

A flame of Truth, dispersing darkest

Shadows of the night

I lived in darkness

Mine eyes were blind though they could see

Mine ears were deaf

Though they could hear the rapturous melodies

Of life.  Dazzled by its colors

Its capturing flavors

Its lingering scents

Was I… as a leaf blown by the winds of time

Time that was bent

On destroying me… until

One day I opened mine eyes

And I could see!

Oh Lord! Thy guidance deserved I not

Through deeds of mine

Or through prayers, or humility, but it’s true

Since before I can remember

I have always known

Deep within me a yearning love for You

Oh Lord, with this prayer I shut mine eyes

To sleep in peace

Knowing that You never do

One and only Protector

Since and till forever

Of our lives

Until the Hour

When we finally come to You

When my heart with life doth beat a few

Then cease to beat

As mine eyes shut forever

And forgotten is my name

Thanks to Thy guidance

My mission on earth

Would be complete

Knowing that my efforts

Were not in vain

And having tried to light

For some their way

An honor it was to melt

As a candle consumed by its flame

It was all for love of Thee

Glorified is Thy name

For love of Thee

Dear God,

Allah*


Allah’ is God in Arabic, commonly shared amongst Christian and Jewish Arabs, as well as the general Muslim population.  Arabs share similar praises of God and quite the same words to describe Him.  Listening to Church services in the Arab world is helpful in appreciating that affinity.

i

See Yusuf Ali‘s comments on Verse1.

See Muhammad Asad’s comments on Verse 2.

ii 

صمد: أَصلان: أحدهما القَصْد، والآخَر الصَّلابة في الشَّيء.

فالأوَّل: الصَّمْد: القصد. يقال صَمَدْتُه صَمْداً. وفلان مُصَمَّدٌ، إِذا كان سيِّداً يُقصَدُ إليه في الأمور. وصَمَدٌ أيضاً. والله جلَّ ثناؤه الصَّمَد؛ لأنه يَصْمِد إليه عبادُهُ بالدُّعاء والطَّلَب. 

والأصل الآخر الصَّمْد، وهو كلُّ مكان صلب.

iii 

كفأ: أصلانِ يدلُّ أحدُهما على التَّساوِي في الشَّيئين، ويدلُّ الآخر على المَيْل والإمالة والاعوجاج، فالأول: كافأت فلاناً، إذا قابلتَه بمثل صَنيعه. والكفء: المِثْل. قال الله تعالى: {وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُواً أحَدٌ} [الإخلاص 4]. والتكافؤ: التَّساوِي. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: “المسلمون تتكافأ دماؤُهم، أي تتساوى.

وجاء في الحديث في ذكر العَقيقة: “شاتان متكافئتان، قالوا: معناه متساويتان في القَدْر والسنّ.

وأمَّا الآخرفقولُهم: أكفأت الشيءَ، إذا أمَلْتَه. ولذلك يقال أكفأتُ القوسَ، إذا أمَلْتَ رأسَهَا ولم تَنْصِبْها حين ترمِي عنها. واكتفأتُ الصحفة، إذا أمَلْتَها إليك.ويقال: أكفأت الشَّيءَ: قلبتُه، وكفأتُأيضاً. ويقال للسَّاهِمِ الوجه: مُكفأ الوجه، كأنَّ وجهَه قد أُمِيلَ عما كان عليه من البَشَارة. ومن الباب الإكفاء في الشِّعر، وهي أن ترفع قافية وتخفض أخرى. ويزعمون أنَّ العرب قد كانت تعرف هذا

iv

Three of which are in Chapter 67

v

Note that ‘Al RaHmaan is mentioned twice in these verses, while the word ‘Allah’ is only mentioned once, in Chapter 112, which introduces Him, God, Allah. All the other verses speak of His relationship TO us, which is that of Al RaHmaan/ our Unique Creator.

vi

The Arabic term RABB means much more than ‘Lord’.  It refers to someone who has a just claim to possession and authority over something, as well as the task of rearing, sustaining, fostering and bringing it together from inception to final completion.

vii

عوذ:أصلٌصحيحيدلُّعلىمعنىًواحد،وهوالالتجاءإلىالشَّيء،ثميُحمَلعليهكلُّشيءلصقبشيءٍأولازَمَه.

قالالخليل: تقولأعوذبالله،جلَّثناؤُه،أيألجأإليهتباركوتعالى،عَوْذاًأوعِياذاً. ذكرأيضاًأنّهميقولون: فلانٌعياذٌلك،أيملجأ. وقولهم: مَعاذَالله،معناهأعوذبالله. وكذاأستعيذبالله. وقالرسولاللهصلىاللهعليهوسلمللتياستعاذتمنه: “لقدعُذْتِبمَعَاذ“. قال: والعُوذةوالمَعَاذة: التييُعوَّذبهاالإنسانمنفَزَعٍأوجُنون.

viii

There are four instances in the Qur’an where the Messenger is told to seek refuge in God/ Allah specifically (unlike the two instances we see now in our final Chapters, where he is told to announce/ say that he seeks refuge in ‘The Lord/ Rabb of…’).  To understand any circumstance that would necessitate seeking such refuge, we must look to context.

We spoke earlier of these 4 instances, and noticed that 3 of them were related to self-control, patience, and graciousness when accosted by different kinds of people:

  • HQ 7: 200 told the Messenger/ Listener to command people to what is mutually acceptable/ عرف(using words/ concepts the common man would understand and agree to) and to TURN AWAY FROM IGNORANT people who continue to refuse his guidance (probably because, once they’ve refused to listen, any further contact with them will only yield ignorant remarks and behavior on their part), and if the Deviant/ SheyTaan incited him (to any negative action), he is to seek refuge in God. That’s it. What GREAT advice for us all: Here we note that this command was not specific to the ‘Prophet/ Nabi,’ which means that it is for ALL TIME, and that THIS IS THE WAY WE ARE SUPPOSED TO DEAL WITH IGNORANT PEOPLE, displaying wisdom and letting things be.

  • HQ 40: 56 told the Messenger/ Listener to seek refuge in God whenever ARROGANT people argue about God’s signs. (Again, this command was not specific to the ‘Prophet/ Nabi,’ which indicates that it is for ALL TIME.)

  • HQ 41: 36 told the Messenger/ Listener, that when speaking to AGGRESSIVE PEOPLE (and they treat him with animosity) HE IS TO CONFRONT THEM WITH THE BEST OF SPEECH & BEHAVIOR which might diffuse the animosity, and then make such a person into a close friend, and to seek refuge in God when the Deviant/ SheyTaan incites him to behave differently. (Here too, this command was not specific to the ‘Prophet/ Nabi,’ which indicates that it is for ALL TIME.)

Now, we come to the fourth instance in HQ 16: 98, which has nothing to do with people. Here, the Messenger/ the listener is commanded to seek refuge in God from possible Deviance when intending to ‘iqra’ the Qur’an, so as not to MISREAD, MISUNDERSTAND, AND MISREPRESENT it!  

Read the post where this verse is explained, where we realized that this is ONLY time we are commanded to seek refuge in God WIHTOUT it relating to the challenge of dealing with people’s negativity. 

New Readers: You MUST check out the difference between Kitaab and Qur’an, and realize that it is each of us, as a Qaare’/ Reader (implementing the 6 components of Iqra) who transforms the Kitaab/ Compilation into the dynamic and interactive Qur’an (put ‘Kitaab Quraan’ in Search).  

ix

فلق:أصلٌصحيحٌ يدلُّعلىفُرْجةٍوبَيْنُونةٍفيالشيء،وعلىتعظيمِشيء. منذلك: فَلَقْتُالشّيءَأَفْلِقُهفَلْقاً. والفَلَق: الصُّبح؛لأنَّالظَّلاميَنْفلِقُعنه. والفَلَق: مطمئنٌّمنالأرضكأنَّهانفلَقَ،وجمعهفِلْقانٌ. والفَلق: الخَلْقكله،كأنَّهشيءٌفُلِقعنهشيءحَتَّىأُبرِزَوأظْهِر. ويقال: انفَلَقَالحَجَروغيرُهوكلَّمنَيفلانٌمنفَِلْقفيه. وهوذاكالقياس.

والآخَرالفليقة،وهيالدَّاهيةالعظيمة. والعربتقول: يالَلْفليقة. والأمرالعَجَبُالعظيم. وأفْلَقَفلانٌ: أتىبالفِلْق. وكذلكيقالشاعرٌمُفلِق.

والفيلق: العجبُأيضاً.

x

The word ‘Rabb’ refers to someone who has a just claim to possession and authority over something, as well as the task of rearing, sustaining, fostering and bringing it together from inception to final completion.

xiiNote that 2 of these verses are about ‘ghassaaq,’ a dreadful slop given to the inhabitants of Jahannam/ Hell. So ‘ghaasiq’ in Chapter 113 is probably NOT about ‘nighttime’ as commonly believed, and at one time, feared. Doesn’t the first verse anyway cover WHATEVER is dangerous and fearful, dark nights included?

xiii

غسق:أصلٌصحيحيدلعلىظُلْمة. فالغَسَق: الظلمة. والغاسِق: الليل. ويقال: غَسَقتعينُه: أظلمت. وأغْسَقَالمؤذِّن،إذاأخَّرصلاةَالمغربإلىغَسَقاللَّيل. وأمّاالغَسَّاقالذيجاءفيالقرآن،فقالالمفسِّرون: ماتقطَّرَمنجلودأهلالنار.‏

وقب: كلمةٌ تدلُّ على غَيبةِ شيءٍ في مَغَاب. يقال وَقب الشَّيءُ: دخَلَ في وَقْبة، وهي كالنُّقْرة في الشَّيء. ووقَبَتْ عيْناه: غارتا. [و] وقَبَ الشَّيءُ: نَزَلَ ووَقَع. قال الله تعالى: {ومِنْ شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إذَا وَقَبَ}[الفلق 3]، قالوا: هو اللَّيل إذا نَزَل. وأمَّا قولُهم: إنَّ الوَقْب هو الأحمَقُ فهو من الإبدال، والأصل وَغْب، وقد ذَكَرناه.

xiv 

نفث: يدلُّ على خروج شيء من فمٍ أو غيره بأدنَى جَرْس. منه نَفَثَ الرّاقِي رِيقَه، وهو أقلُّ من التَّفْل. والساحرة تَنْفُِثُ السمّ. و لابدَّ للمصدور أن يَنْفُثمثَل. و لو سألني نُفَاثَةَ سِوَاكٍ ما أعطيته، وهو ما بقي في أسنانه فنفَثَه. ودمٌ نفيثٌ: نَفَثَهُ الجُرحُ، أي أظهَرَه.

xv

عقد:يدلُّ على شَدٍّ وشِدّةِ وُثوق، وإليه ترجعُ فروعُ البابِ كلها.

وعَقَدت الحبلَ أعقِده عَقْداً، وقد انعقد، وتلك هي العُقْدة.

ومما يرجع إلى هذا المعنى لكنَّه يُزَاد فيه للفصل بين المعاني: أعقَدْت العَسَل وانعقد، وعسلٌ عقيد ومُنعقِد.

وعاقَدته مثل عاهدته، وهو العَقْد والجمع عُقود. قال الله تعالى: {أوْفُوا بالعُقود} [المائدة 1]، والعَقْد: عَقْدُ اليمين، [ومنه] قوله تعالى: {ولكِنْ يُؤَاخِذُكُمْ بِمَا عَقَّدْتُمُ الأَيْمَانَ} [المائدة 89]. وعُقْدَة النكاح وكلِّ شيء: وُجوبُه وإبرامُه.

والعُقْدة في البيع: إيجابه. والعُقْدَة: الضَّيْعة، والجمع عُقَد. يقال اعتقد فلانٌ عُقْدةً، أي اتَّخذها. واعتقد مالاً وأخاً، أي اقتناه. وعَقَد قلبَه على كذا فلا يَنزِع عنه. واعتَقَد الشيءُ: صَلُب. واعتَقَد الإخاءُ: ثَبَتَ. والعَقِيد: طعام يُعْقَد بعسل. والمَعَاقِد: مواضع العَقْد من النِّظام.

وعِقْدُ القِلادة ما يكون طُوَارَ العُنق، أي مقدارَه. قال الدريديّ: “المِعقاد خيط تنظم فيه خَرَزَات“.

قال الخليل: عَقَد الرَّمل: ما تراكم واجتمع، والجمع أعقاد. وقلَّما يقال عَقِد وعَقِدات، وهو جائز.

ومن أمثالهم: “أحمق من تُرْب العَقَديعنون عَقَد الرَّمل؛ وحُمْقُه أنّه لا يثبت فيه التّراب، إنما ينهار. وهو أعطش من عَقَد الرّمْل، وأشْرَبُ من عَقَد الرّملأي إنّه يتشرَّب كلَّ ما أصابه من مطر ودَثَّة.

قال ابنُ الأعرابيّ: العُقْدة من الشّجر: ما يكفي المالَ سنَتَه. قال غيرُه: العُقْدَة من الشّجَر: ما اجتمع وثبَتَ أصلُه. ويقال للمكان الذي يكثر شجرُه عُقدة أيضاً. وكلُّ الذي قيل في عُقدة الشَّجَر والنَّبْت فهو عائد إلى هذا. ولا معنى لتكثير الباب بالتكرير.

قال ابنُ الأعرابيّ: عُقَد الدُّورِ والأرَضِينَ مأخوذةٌ من عُقَد الكلأ؛ لأنَّ فيها بلاغاً وكِفاية. وعَقَد الكَرْمُ، إذا رأيتَ عُودَه قد يَبس ماؤُه وانتهى.

وعَقَدَ الإفطُ. ويقال إنّ عَكَد اللسان، ويقال لـه عَقَد أيضاً، هو الغِلَظ في وسطه. وعَقِد الرّجلُ، إذا كانت في لسانه عُقدة، فهو أعقَدُ.

ويقال: تعقَّد السَّحابُ، إذا صار كأنّه عَقْد مضروبٌ مبنيّ. ويقال للرجل: “قد تَحلَّلت عُقَده، إذا سكنَ غضبَهُ. ويقال: “قد عقد ناصيتَه، إذا غَضِب فتهيَّأ للشَّر. قال الدريديّ: “عَقَّدَ فلان كلامَه، إذا عمَّاه وأعْوَصه([70]) “. ويقال: إنّ المعقِّد السّاحر. وإنما قيل ذلك لأنّه يعقِّد السِّحر. وقد جاء في كتاب الله تعالى: {وَمِنْ شَرِّ النَّفَّاثَاتِ في الْعُقَد} [الفلق 4]: من السَّواحر اللواتي يُعقِّدن في الخُيُوط. ويقال إذا أطبق الوادي على قوم فأهلكهم: عقد عليهم.

xvi

عَقْدٌ جمعها: عُقُودٌ
عقدة جمعها:  عُقَد 

xvii

The Prophet is reported to have said, “I am only human, and you people (opponents) come to me with your cases; and it may be that one of you presents his argument more eloquently than the other, and I render my verdict according to what I hear. So if I ever pass judgement and allot someone what rightfully belongs to his brother, then he should not take it, for I would only have allotted him a piece of the Fire.”

xviii

No one seems to have noticed this explanation since it has become common usage to erroneously call the marriage-bond ‘aqd al nikaaH’ instead of the Qur’anic ‘uqdah-tul nikaaH.’

xix

In Arabic, one can tell the difference between ‘someone who happens to be any description at a point in time,’ versus ‘someone in whom the description is innate or emphasized,’ by the grammatical form of the noun itself.

The first is ‘faa’il’فاعل the second is ‘fa’ool’ فعول.

xx

‘Haasid’ = ‘Faa’il’ (see previous foot-note).

xxi

لسان العرب:

 الحسد:

الجوهري الحسد أن تتمنى زوال نعمة المحسود إليك . يقال : حسده يحسده حسودا .وروي عن النبي ، صلى الله عليه وسلم ، أنه قال : ( لا حسد إلا في اثنتين : رجل آتاه الله مالا فهو ينفقه آناء الليل والنهار ، ورجل آتاه الله قرآنا فهو يتلوه 

الحسد : أن يرى الرجل لأخيه نعمة فيتمنى أن تزول عنه وتكون له دونه ، والغبط : أن يتمنى أن يكون له مثلها ولا يتمنى زوالها عنه 

Admiration for someone is called ‘ghibTah’ in Arabic; it means feeling envious AND happy for them, at the same time.

معجم المقاييس في اللغة:

غبط:لهثلاثةوجوه: أحدهادوامُالشيءولزومُه،[والآخَرالجَسُّ]،والآخِرنوعٌمنالحَسَد.

فالأوّلقولهم: أغْبَطَتْعليهالحُمَّى،أيدامَت. وأغبَطْتُالرَّحْلَعلىظَهرالبَعِيرِ،إذاأدمْتَههذاالغِبْطة: حُسْنالحالِودوامُالمَسَرَّةوالخَيْر.

والأصلالآخرالغَبْط،يقال: غبَطْتُالشَّاةَ،إذاجسستَها بيدكتنظربهاسِمَنٌ.

ومنهذاالباب: الغَبِيط : أرضٌمطمئنّة،كأنّهاغُبِطَتْحتىاطمأنَّت.

والثالثالغَبْط،وهوحَسَدٌيقالإنَّهغيرُمذموم،لأنَّهيَتمنَّىولايُريدزوالَالنِّعمةمنغيره،والحَسَدُبخلافهذا. وفيالدعاء. “اللهمَّغَبْطاًلاهَبْطاً،ومعناهاللهمَّ[نَسْأَلُكأن] نُغبَطولانهْبَطَ،أيلانُحَطّ.

 

xxii

We spoke of this earlier.

New Readers: Please put any word in Search, and try to understand what all these words are about.

Jinn/ janna is simply about being imperceptible, and ‘SheyTaan’ in certain contexts (such as HQ 3: 26) means ‘gang-leader.’

See 3 instances of root-verb ‘hamaza’ in Qur’an, which shows us that the ‘shayaTeen’ mentioned in HQ 23: 97 are human, as is their action of ‘hamz.

November 5th, 2013

Qur’an 109; 110; 111


Welcome Friends: 
Ahlan wa sahlan!

Page 603 ArabicQur’an

سورة الكافرون

‘The Deniers’

 

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

“This is another early Makkan Surah. It defines the right attitude to those who reject Faith; in matters of Truth we can make no compromise, but there is no need to prosecute or abuse anyone for his faith or belief.”

 

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“REVEALED shortly after surah 107.”

COMMENTS:

This Chapter calls upon Prophet Muhammad, peace upon him, to openly declare his complete and unequivocal DISASSOCIATION from the belief-system of his people (remember that Prophet Abraham disassociated himself from his father and his people in HQ 43: 26 i…. Also see the many similar clearly announced disassociations in the Qur’an).

Here the Messenger is told to announce his disassociation from them, for all time:

“Say/ Call: ‘O you Deniers!

I DO NOT worship what you are worshipping.

And neither shall you worship what I worship.

And neither SHALL I worship what you worshipped.

And neither shall you worship what I worship.

To you your Accountability and to me my Accountability!”

Note that:

The two verses which speak from the Messenger’s pont of view speak of total disassociation; present and future.

The two verses which speak from the Deniers’ point of view are of the future, repeated twice… indicating that those who have earned the title ‘Denier’ shall never change course or be guided by God.

The final verse asserts that each is ACCOUNTABLE, separately. Each has their own Accountability.

Indeed, this Chapter is not about worship at all; it is about WHOM we worship… about the Purity of Deen/ Accountability, which should be to God Alone, and to NONE beside Him (ii). When we put the word ‘I worship/ أعبد and the word ‘Deen’ together, in our Search Engine, we see this clearly, through these three verses.

Anyway, what does it mean to ‘worship/عبد Godiii?

It means to acknowledge Him and call upon Him… to be humble to Him in heart and demeanor… to follow His instruction. And here we are told to do so with PURE ACCOUNTABILITY to Him (put ‘pure accountability’ in ‘Search’).

Of the sixteen times (iv) in which the Qur’an had directly commanded the Messenger to address someone by telling him to say: “O …. (so-&-so)…” this is the ONLY time he is told to address ‘The Deniers/ al Kafiroon’; those who have been so ‘labelled,’ having earned the title.

We already know a lot about Deniers/ ‘Kafiroon/ Kafireen.’

We’ve read that they intentionally discredit a Messenger of God, having drawn their own self-serving path of who/what to believe in (see HQ 4: 151). We saw other traits in HQ 19: 77- 84 (v), where we found that they deny God’s Signs/ Ayaat seeing themselves as self-sufficient without God, and that when they do adopt a deity, they do so for the sole purpose of gaining self-importance and being ‘honored’ by their peers.

Indeed, to them their Accountability, and to the Messenger, his.

After which was to come his call (in HQ 10: 104- 106 and other verses) to the general public.. to Humanity at large:

Say: “O Cognizant Humans, If you are in doubt regarding my Standard of Accountability, then (know that) I do not worship those whom you are worshipping other than (and beneath) God, but I worship God Who takes you unto Him consummately (in death),

and I have been commanded to be of the Faithful.

And set your direction to the Self-correcting Standard of Accountability,

and make sure not to be of the Associaters (who ascribe partners to God).

And do not call other than God,

unto what can neither benefit you nor harm you:

for if you do, you will then indeed be among the Wrongdoers!”

Peace unto all!

سورة النصر

‘Succor/ Relief/ Assistance’

 

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

“This beautiful Surah was the last of the Surahs to be revealed as a whole, though the portion of the verse 5:4 “This day I perfected your religion for you” etc., contains probably the last words of Quran to be revealed.

The date of this Surah was only a few months before the passing way of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) from this world, Rabi 1, A.H. 11. The place was either the precincts of Makkah at his Farewell Pilgrimage, Dhul al Hijjah, A.H. 10, or Madinah after his return from the Farewell Pilgrimage.

Victory is the crown of service, not an occasion for exultation. All victory comes from the help of God.”

 

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“REVEALED at Mina during the Prophet’s Farewell Pilgrimage in the month of Dhu ‘l-Hijjah, 10 H. – that is, a little over two months before his death – this is unquestionably the last complete surah conveyed by him to the world. It was preceded one day earlier (on Friday, the 9th of Dhu ‘l-Hijjah) by the revelation of the words, “Today have I perfected your religious law for you, and bestowed upon you the full measure of My blessings, and willed that self-surrender unto Me (al-islam) shall be your religion’” (5:3); and since those words were almost immediately followed by the present surah, some of the Prophet’s Companions concluded that his mission was fulfilled, and that he was about to die (Bukhari). As a matter of fact, the only revelation which the Prophet received after An-Nasr was verse 281 of Al-Baqarah.”

COMMENTS:

This Chapter addresses the listener/ the Messenger, peace upon him, telling him of a long-awaited time of Relief and Opportunity, when both ‘NasSr’ from God, and ‘Fat-H,’ shall finally arrive to the Community of the Faithful.

  • NasSr-al-Lah: Godsent Relief.

    Literally ‘the dispersal of goodness/ bounty/ succor/ relief’ from God, which is why rain used to be called ‘naSsr’ at the time of Revelation (vi). 

Although today we might understand ‘naSsr’ as ‘triumph’ or ‘victory,’ our Lexicon shows us that the word gains that meaning when followed by an object (someone having ‘naSsr/ victory’ over -‘alaa-على- someone/ something  else).  With no object, it is more about succor/ assistance (think of the ‘AnSaar,’ the people of Yathrib who offered ‘succor/ relief/ help’ to the Meccan Emigrants).

  • Al Fat-H: ‘The Opening/ Opportunity.’

    Regular Readers will remember that ‘fatH’ meant ‘opening/ break/ opportunity,’ and referred in Chapter 48 (also called ‘Al Fat-H’) to the Peace Treaty, and the opportunity it presented to spread the Message.

    When we put these two key words together in our Qur’an search-engine, Tanzil, look what we find:

In HQ 61:13 we find a promise from God, that He shall grant ‘The Faithful’ (note the title) many bounties in the Hereafter, as well as His ‘Succor/ Relief’ and the ‘Opening/ Opportunity’ IN LIFE… but first:

There are efforts to be made on their part.

Regular Readers will remember these verses as the all-important TRANSACTION of Chapter 61. At the time, we found that HQ 61: 10-13 adressed ‘those who have attained faith,’ and asked them (and us) whether they would like to be shown a transaction which would save them from painful suffering. After that, they were told what they would have to offer in return (see complete ‘Transaction’ below vii).

Back to today’s verses:

So this is it!

This Chapter speaks of the time when everything shall come together; when you find all your hard efforts being rewarded by success, bountifulness, opportunity, and ALSO by countless people entering, in multitudes, into God’s ‘Deen/ Accountability Standard’ (Verse 2).

At THAT time of great success, what are we to do?

Verse 3 tells each of us to ‘motivate yourself, glorify your Lord/ Sustainer (for His Worthiness), and ask His Forgiveness,’ asserting that He is indeed Oft-returning in Forgiveness.

So that’s all we are to do in rejoicing.

(See all 14 verses سبح- حمد- remember distinction between ‘hamada’ and ‘madaHa’ viii).

Our exultation is to be shown by motivation, humbleness and gratitude… by a desire for absolution and forgiveness.

What better than that is there?

Forgive us, Dear Lord.

Accept our efforts.

Render us worthy of Your ‘naSsr’ and Your ‘fat-H,’ and lead us to such a humble day of Rejoicing.

Amen.

Peace unto all!

سورة المسد

‘Twisted bristles’

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

“This very early Makkan Surah, though it referred in the first instance to a particular incidence in a cruel and relentless persecution, carries the general lesson that cruelty ultimately ruins itself. The man who rages against holy things is burned up in his own rage. His hands, which are the instruments of his actions, perish, and he perishes himself. No boasted wealth or position will save him.

The woman, who are made for nobler emotions, may, if they go wrong, feed unholy rage with fiercer feel—to their own loss. For they may twist the torturing rope round their own neck. It is a common experience that people perish by the very means by which they seek to destroy others.”

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“THIS very early surah – the sixth in the order of revelation – derives its name from its last word. It relates to the bitter hostility always shown to the Prophet’s message by his uncle Abu Lahab: a hostility rooted in his inborn arrogance, pride in his great wealth, and a dislike of the idea, propounded by Muhammad, that all human beings are equal before God and will be judged by Him on their merits alone… (ix)”

COMMENTS:

To get the full impact of this chapter, we should first disregard all the commentary and ‘scene-setting’ which has, for many centuries, been propped-up around it.

The link between this chapter and Chapter 85 (about the Ditch of Fire’ الأخدود x) is unmistakable unless one’s mind is clouded by preconception (please reread the important evidence presented in Chapter 85 before you go on).

Today’s Chapter tells us:


Perished be both hands of the Father of Flame, and perished be he!

Of no avail was his wealth, and what he had earned

He shall be bonded (yaSlaa) to a Fire of Blazing Flame!
And his wife, the carrier of firewood

Around her neck is a tight-twisted-rope of bristle (xi)!”

‘Abu Lahab/ Father of Flame’ is the Qur’anic title given to someone who quite clearly earned it due to what his hands had wrought and his wealth had played a part in. It is obvously about Fire… blazing flames… for which his wife had evidently supplied the fire-wood.

Historians assert that this person was the Prophet’s uncle BUT the reason they give for the Qur’an calling him ‘Father of Flame’ has nothing to do with actual fire. They say the ‘nickname’ seems to have been a reference to a red beard OR perhaps a bright face. They also say that his wife, whom the Qur’an called ‘the carrier of firewood,’ was given this description because of some thorns she carried to throw at the Prophet.

Think. How is it that:

-The Qur’an says ‘Father of FLAME’ yet they say that was because of the COLOR of his face or beard..?

-The Qur’an says ‘FIREWOOD’ yet they say that was merely ‘THORNS’..?

isn’t it obvious that these descriptions were related to some kind of violent persecution going on at the time in Mecca, and mentioned clearly in Chapter 85..? Early on, within the first few generations after Revelation, the narrative must have been changed. Future generations merely kept repeating what they’d been told (xii), and the truth got buried beneath their elaborations.

If we seek the Divine, this trend of repetition should stop with us:

We should NOT let anything override Qur’anic evidence!

There seem to be a few Commentators who were pulled to the conclusion of an actual fire-pit, although they did not say it in so many words -see the posting on Chapter 85 and read this Arabic explanation by ‘Tantawi,’ which comes close.

Peace unto all!

i

Didn’t you find it interesting that even the ‘SheyTaan/ Deviant’ disassociates himself from wrongdoers?

ii

قلْ إِنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللَّـهَ مُخْلِصًا لَّهُ الدِّينَ ﴿١١ وَأُمِرْتُ لِأَنْ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ﴿١٢ قُلْ إِنِّي أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ ﴿١٣ قُلِ اللَّـهَ أَعْبُدُ مُخْلِصًا لَّهُ دِينِي ﴿١٤ فَاعْبُدُوا مَا شِئْتُم مِّن دُونِهِ ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ الْخَاسِرِينَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَهْلِيهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ أَلَا ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْخُسْرَانُ الْمُبِينُ ﴿١٥

HQ 39: 11- 15

iii


عبدأصلانِ صحيحان، كأنَّهما متضادَّان، والأول يدلُّ على لِين وذُلّ، والآخر على شِدّة وغِلَظ.

فالأوّل العَبد، وهو المملوك، والجماعةُ العبيدُ، وثلاثةُ يقال هذا عبدٌ بيِّن العُبُودَة. ولم نسمَعْهم يشتقُّون منه فعلاً، ولو اشتق لقيل عَبُد، أي صار عبداً وأقرَّ بالعُبُودة، ولكنّه أُمِيت الفعلُ فلم يُستعمل. قال: وأمّا عَبَدَ يُعبُد عِبادةً فلا يقال إلاّ لمن يُعبُد اللهَ تعالى. يقال منه عَبَد يعبُد عبادة، وتعبَّد يتعبّد تعبّداً. فالمتعبِّد: المتفرِّد بالعبادة. واستعبدتُ فلاناً: اتخذتُه عبداً. وأمّا عَبْد في معنى خَدَم مولاه فلا يقال عبَدَه، ولا يقال يعبُد مَولاه. وتعبَّدَ فلانٌ فلاناً، إذا صيَّره كالعبد له وإن كان حُرَّاً. ويقال: أعْبَدَ فلانٌ فلاناً، أي جعله عبداً. ويقال للمشركين: عَبَدة الطّاغوتِ والأوثان، وللمسلمين: عُبّادٌ يعبدون الله تعالى.

ومن الباب البعير المعبَّد، أي المهنُوء بالقَطِران. وهذا أيضاً يدلُّ على ما قلناه لأنّ ذلك يُذِلُّه ويَخفِض منه. والمعبّد: الذلول، يوصَف به البعير أيضاً.

ومن الباب: الطريق المُعَبَّد، وهو المسلوك المذلَّل.

والأصل الآخَر العَبَدة، وهي القُوّة والصَّلابة؛ يقال هذا ثوبٌ له عَبَدة، إذا كان صَفيقاً قويَّاً . ومنهُ علقمة بن عَبَدَة، بفتح الباء.

ومن هذا القياس العَبَد، مثل الأنَف والحميّة. يقال: هو يَعْبَدُ لهذا الأمر. وفسِّر قوله تعالى{قُلْ إِنْ كَانَ لِلرَّحمنِ وَلدٌ فَأنَا أوَّلُ العابِدِينَ} [الزخرف81]، أي أوَّلُ مَن غَضِبَ عَنْ هذا وأنِف من قولِه. وذُكر عن عليٍّ عليه السلامُ أنّه قال: “عَبِدتُ فصَمَتُّ، أي أنِفْتُ فسكَتّ.

وقال آخر:وأعبَدُ أن تُهجَى كليبٌ بدارِمِ” أي آنف من ذلك وأغضبُ منه.

iv

He was told to address Cognizant Humans 4 times; People of the (Earlier) Compilation, meaning Jews & Christians, 6 times; Those who ‘Hadu/ the Jews’ once; his own ‘Qawm/ people’ twice; God’s worshippers/ Ibaad’ twice; and the Deniers/ al Kafiroon once.

v

أَفَرَأَيْتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ بِآيَاتِنَا وَقَالَ لَأُوتَيَنَّ مَالًا وَوَلَدًا ﴿٧٧ أَطَّلَعَ الْغَيْبَ أَمِ اتَّخَذَ عِندَ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ عَهْدًا ﴿٧٨ كَلَّا ۚ سَنَكْتُبُ مَا يَقُولُ وَنَمُدُّ لَهُ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ مَدًّا ﴿٧٩ وَنَرِثُهُ مَا يَقُولُ وَيَأْتِينَا فَرْدًا ﴿٨٠ وَاتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ آلِهَةً لِّيَكُونُوا لَهُمْ عِزًّا ﴿٨١ كَلَّا ۚ سَيَكْفُرُونَ بِعِبَادَتِهِمْ وَيَكُونُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ ضِدًّا ﴿٨٢ أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ تَؤُزُّهُمْ أَزًّا ﴿

٨٣ فَلَا تَعْجَلْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ إِنَّمَا نَعُدُّ لَهُمْ عَدًّا ﴿٨٤

HQ 19: 77-84 

vi

نصر: يدلُّ على إتيان خَيرٍ وإيتائه. ونَصَر اللهُ المسلمين: آتاهمُ الظّفرَ على عدوِّهم، ينصرهم نَصْراً.

وأمَّا الإتيانُ فالعرب تقول: نصرت بَلَدَ كذا، إذا أتيتَه.

ولذلك يسمَّى المطرُ نَصْراً. ونُصِرت الأرضُ، فهي منصورة.والنَّصْر: العَطاء.

vii

THE TRANSACTION

FROM THEIR SIDE:

An article of faith, and its confirmation.

 

o  To have Faith (with Trust and Security) in God and His Messenger (put ‘imaan’ in ‘Search’).

o  To exert themselves financially and physically in God’s way (put ‘jahadada jihaad’ in ‘Search’).

 

Notice, dear Reader, that in the 9 times ‘self-exertion’ is mentioned, financial ‘jihaad/ exertion’ ALWAYS comes before the physical… so, once again, this is NOT about what people mistakenly call a ‘Holy War.’

FROM GOD’S SIDE:

Forgiveness, guarantee for the Hereafter, preceded by glad tidings in Life

 

o   God shall absolve them of all the wrongs they committed against themselves.

(Put ‘thanb’ in ‘Search.’)

 

o  God shall admit them into Gardens beneath which rivers flow, with fine residences of tranquility in Perpetual Gardens… and that is the Great Deliverance!

(Put ‘eden’ in ‘Search.  Also ‘fawz.’)

 

o   And another which they love, Victory from God and an imminent ‘Opening,’ given as glad tidings by the Messenger to Those who Had Attained Faith.

 

What a precious, worthwhile transaction: 

An article of Faith and its CONSISTENT, active confirmation from the side of the Faithful… for all the Good imaginable in this life and the next, from God’s side.  

viii

Today’s Arabs commonly miss out on the important distinction between Hamada and madaHa.  We commonly understand the word ‘hamada’ to indicate showing gratitude for something given or done for us, whereas that word should be ‘madaha.’ Hamada’ is not related to bounties that might be given, but rather, to the inherent characteristics in someone… characteristics that are all deserving of acknowledgement on their own. Therefore, when we say ‘Al Hamdulil-Lah’ we announce that it is only rightful that God be glorified for WHO He Is.

ix

Muhammad Asad continued:

“As reported by several unimpeachable authorities – Bukhari and Muslim among them – the Prophet ascended one day the hillock of As-Safa in Mecca and called together all who could hear him from among his tribe, the Quraysh, When they had assembled, he asked them: “O sons of Abd al-Muttalib! O sons of Fihr! If I were to inform you that enemy warriors are about to fall upon you from behind that hill, would you believe me?” They answered: “Yes, we would.” Thereupon he said: “Behold, then, I am here to warn you of the coming of the Last Hour!” At that, Abu Lahab exclaimed: “Was it for this purpose that thou hast summoned us? May thou be doomed!” And shortly afterwards this surah was revealed.”

x

Khadda’ means to ‘make an indentation/ to dig-out,’ while ‘ukhdood’ is the ‘dug-out’ itself.

xi

حبل: يدل على امتداد الشيءثمّ يحمل عليه، ومَرْجِع الفروع مرجعٌ واحدفالحبل الرَّسَن، معروف، والجمع حِبالوالحبلحبل العاتقوالحِبالة:حِبالة

الصائدويقال احتَبَلَ الصّيدَ، إذا صادَهُ بالحبالة. ويقال للواقف مكانَه لا يفرّ. “حَبِيلُ بَرَاحٍ، كأنّه محبولٌ، أي قد شُدّ بالحِبال.

مسد: يدل على جَدْل شَيءٍ وطَيِّهفالمَسَدلِيفٌ يُتَّخذ من جريد النَّخلوالمَسَدُحبلٌ يتَّخذ من أوبار الإبل

xii

Excerpted from our earlier post:

‘Why did the earliest commentators whitewash this issue, speaking of only a few incidents of persecution and killing? Did they divert people’s attention elsewhere, and not mention that the ditch of fire was one of the ‘punishments’ Qureish had devised for less influential members of the faith, probably heralding the Faithful’s mass exodus out of town to the barren valleys, where they had to live on grubs and tree-bark, as some of them fled to Ethiopia?

Was the whitewash an intentional political move, since the Abbasids were direct descendants of al-Abbas Ib Abd-al Muttalib, brother to Abd al Uzza b. ‘Abd al-Muttalib, a.k.a. ‘Abu Lahab?’ Or was it to make the Prophet’s story ‘child-friendly,’ as we mentioned earlier.

If people had dared question ‘tradition,’ this would have been dealt with a long time ago.

I THINK TODAY IS THE TIME.’

November 5th, 2013

Qur’an 106; 107; 108

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!

Page 602 ArabicQur’an

سورة قريش

‘Qureish’

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

“This Makkan Surah may well be considered as a pendant to the last. If the Quraysh were fond of Makkah and proud of it, if they profited, by its central position and its guaranteed security, from their caravans of trade and commerce, let them be grateful, adore the One True God, and accept His Message.”

 

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“ACCORDING to some of the Companions of the Prophet and several learned men of the next generation, this surah and the preceding one form, in fact, one entity. Thus, in the Qur’an-copy owned by Ubayy ibn Ka’b, AlFil and Quraysh were written as one surah, i.e., without the customary invocation “In the name of God” intervening between them (Baghawi and Zamakhshari). We must remember that side by side with Zayd ibn Thabit and Ali ibn Abi Talib, Ubayy ibn Ka’b was one of the foremost authorities on whom both Abu Bakr and Uthman relied for the final recension of the text of the Qur’an; and it is probably for this reason that Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani regards the evidence of Ubayy’s Qur’an-copy as fairly conclusive (Fath al-Bari VIII, 593). Moreover, it is established that, when leading the congregational prayer, Umar ibn al-Khattab used to recite the two surahs as one (Zamakhshari and Razi). But whether Al-Fil and Quraysh are one surah or two separate ones, there is hardly any doubt that the latter is a continuation of the former, implying that God destroyed the Army of the Elephant “so that the Quraysh might remain secure.”

COMMENTS:

I found it interesting that this Chapter was considered by some to be a continuation of the previous one (reported to have appeared in the compilation of a companion of the Prophet -peace upon him- WITHOUT the separating ‘Bismil-Lah;’ see Asad above). The only way to know for sure is through numeric research, which I am not qualified to conduct, but I do know that:

Every word in the Qur’an has its weight, and forms part of its magnificent whole. Every word -and every letter to every word- is part of the intricate numeric design which runs through the entire Qur’an (i). Therefore ‘Bismil-Lah’ -with its 19 letters- could be found to either fit perfectly, or not fit at all: Numeric research will give us the definitive answer.

This Chapter is a reminder to Qureish of God’s great bounty to them:

It begins by drawing attention to their ‘ilaaf,’ their congregation & fellowship’ (see root verb ‘alafa/ ألفin Qur’an with all its variations -ii). This seems to hint either at this camaraderie being a rarity of the times, or at its coming after prior animosity and division. Their fellowhip and cooperation is manifested by the twice-yearly trade journeys they embarked on every winter and summer, bringing them much benefit. Although the benefit may seem financial, the true benefit lies in the state of security which enables people to capitalize on gathered wealth and knowledge.

Interesting notes:

This is the only time the word ‘Qureish’ is mentioned in the Qur’an; the root-verb ‘qarasha’ is about earning money; literally ‘accumulating money’ – see footnoteقرش (iii) and also note how English Etymology ALWAYS ignores Arabic lingistic origins, and refers words to other -often far-fetched- sources.

The main gist of this Chapter is made clear by the term ‘li/ FOR:

FOR (reason of) the ‘ilaaf’ of Qureish and their thriving trade, THEY ARE TO WORSHIP THE LORD OF THIS HOUSE, Who fed them against hunger, and granted them safety against fear. This is a call to them, to renounce the hundreds of idols they’d planted around this ‘House’ (the Ka’ba), and to worship the Lord of this House which they claim ownership to. The Qur’an often indicates that their idols can neither help nor harm them in any way, showing them the absurdity of worshipping such objects instead of God Almighty.

It logically follows that He Who granted them all that, can take it away anytime… which is what happened to those of them who did not heed the call.

Is this Chapter a lesson to similar ‘qureish’ peoples of today?

When people who have ‘quroosh’ (wealth) attempt ‘ilaaf’ (friendly inter-relations with others), and then create channels of mutual benefit… don’t they guard themselves and their children against the fears of hunger and war?

We need to learn more about other cultures, and understand them. That is how we can understand ourselves better, and realize how similar we all are. That is the truth, and anyone who has led a multi-cultural life would agree.

Note that Hunger and Fear appearing together are Humanity’s WORST predicament, mentioned in three verses of the Qur’an.

Look around you.

Think about it.

Peace unto all!

سورة الماعون

‘The Assistance/ Relief

 

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

“This Surah—at least the first half of it—belongs to the early Makkan period. The subject is the meaning of true worship, which requires Faith, the practical and helpful love of those in need, and sincerity rather than show in devotion and charity.”

 

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“THE NAME of this surah, which was revealed in the early years of the Prophet’s mission (probably after surah 102), is derived from the word al-ma’un occurring in the last verse. The view of some commentators that verses 4-7 were revealed at Medina lacks all historical or textual evidence and may, therefore, be disregarded.”

COMMENTS:

This Chapter gives us a clear DEFINITION of ACCOUNTABILITY/ DEEN.

As Regular Readers already know (iv), ‘Deen’ in Arabic is NOT ‘religion.’ (It is NOT that divisive, ‘man-made’ concept we know as ‘religion,’ erroneously translated by modern-day Arabs as ‘deen.’ New Readers: Put words in ‘Search.’)

In this Chapter is the definition:

DEEN/ ACCOUNTABILITY IS PRIMARILY A SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Which is why:

A LACK OF COMMITMENT to social responsibility = Belying Accountability.

‘Belying’ Accountability means denying certain social responsibilities and calling them: ‘False.’ We spoke of this concept extensively when we came across it earlier in the Qur’an, in HQ 82:9, 95.

Now here it appears for the last time, in 107:1…. so well-defined.

‘Do you see him who belies in Accountability?

That is the one who pushes/ thrusts away (دع v) the orphan,

and does not urge the feeding of the helpless indigent.’

We were often warned against these two FAILINGS:

  • Failing to be gracious to the Orphan (HQ 89:17, 93:9, 107:2).

  • Failing to urge the feeding of the Helpless (HQ 69:34, 89:18, 107:3).

But here, there is something else which we are warned against:

‘Therefore, ‘Wailing/ Woe’ to the MuSalleen/ Those who are themselves (seemingly) maintaining Relationship/ Salaat.

Those who are themselves (in actual fact) oblivious of their Relationships/ Salaat.’

Are we being warned against being INCONSISTENT in these two major responsibilities? Remember the verses HQ 70: 22-26 which spoke of the need for us to maintain CONSISTENT ‘Relationship/ Salaat,’ the past tense of the verb ‘salla’ being the opposite of ‘tawalla.’  Put words in ‘Search’). Inconsistency could be due to forgetfulness and needing reminders, OR due to choosing the times when one can gain approval… both reasons speaking volumes against such persons.

But these verses tell us more; let us read on:

‘Those who are themselves showing off, and obstructing the Ma’oon/ Relief (process).’

Oh.

These verses are warning listeners against pretending to maintain Relationship/ Salaat’ because such pretense is WORSE than staying away and doing nothing. Why is it worse? Because when there is an obvious void, someone might jump in to fill it. Pretending to help is highly damaging and obstructive. It is a frustrating impediment, which stalls the entire social relief process; a process called ‘maa’oon’ from the root-verb ‘ma’ana’ (vi). Most people don’t realize that Arabic nouns which follow the grammatical form of ‘faa’ool/فاعول‘ generally refer to the ‘instrument/ device/ means’ by which that particular root-verb is carried out (for example ‘faarooq’ is the instrument by which the action of ‘faraqa’ is carried out). Here, the process of ‘ma’oon’ is impeded by people who merely pretend to help!

Earlier, we came across other verses (HQ 74: 42-47) which spoke of those who ‘belied Accountability,’ and described them as not bothering to help at allvii .

Some Commentators have explained Verses 4-5 as being limited to the actual ritual prayer/ Salaat despite the fact that the conjunctive ف- therefore’ ties Verse 4 to the verses before it, even as the nature of this Salaat is further explained in Verses 6- 7.

May we be of true service to our society, maintaining Relationship/Salaat with God and Mankind in the best way possible.

Amen.

Peace unto all!

سورة الكوثر

‘Abundance’

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

“This very brief early Makkan Surah sums up in the single mystic word kawthar (Abundance) the doctrine of spiritual Riches through devotion and sacrifice. The converse also follows: indulgence in hatred means the cutting off all hopes of this life and the Hereafter.”

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“WHEREAS most of the authorities assign this surah to the early part of the Mecca period, Ibn Kathir considers it most probable that it was revealed at Medina.”

COMMENTS:

This Chapter, dear Readers, is about Thanksgiving.

It shows us how we should deal with success, calling on us to REFLECT on our life’s work, and to SHARE with others when we achieve abundance /كثر(viii).

This is the shortest Chapter in the Qur’an, made up of only three verses.

I do agree that it must have been revealed in Medina, seeing that it speaks of ‘Abundance/ kawthar’ which ‘you,’ meaning the Messenger Muhammad, had ALREADY been given, and for which he is ‘therefore‘ (ف) to offer two things in return. These two things are: ‘Salaat’ to his Lord and ‘naHr.’

  • Although ‘Salaat’ is taken by many to refer to the actual ritual prayer, it is also about Supplication, which is the constant ‘relationship’ each of us renews with our Lord, at all times.

  • ‘NaHr’ is known to be the act of slaughtering cattle and distributing its meat to the poor نحر (ix).

    Some Commentators have explained these verses as being about the general observation of ritual prayer, the word ‘naHr’ referring to the part of the neck where one’s hands should be raised to while saying ‘Allahu Akbar,’ or where the hands should be placed, right on top of left, right under the collar-bone.

    Others have said that these verses pertain in particular to the ‘Eid/ Feast’ of ‘aDHa,’ when people congregate in a special ‘Eid’ prayer, after which they ‘sacrifice/ slaughter’ cattle in commemoration of Prophet Abraham’s ordeal (when he was commanded to sacrifice his only son, peace upon them both, and then relieved from that responsibility by being presented with a ram to slaughter instead).

I think that, regardless of how we might wish to ‘apply’ these verses to our lives today, what is obvious is the fact that:

They were directed to the Messenger, personally. It is to him that God gave ‘Kawthar,’ after which the commands (beginning by ‘therefore etc..’) apply to him, and he did apply them.

Notice that the final verse states:

‘Indeed, your Detester is the one who is severed..!’

This must have been a later Chapter, revealed when the community achieved peace and prosperity, and when all who had fought against the Messenger, peace upon him, were defeated or rooted out.

These verses relate to a time of ease and victory.. a time of Plenty/ Kawthar… when gratitude is due to one’s Rabb/ Lord Sustainer.

Reminders:

–Regular Readers will remember the definition of ‘Rabb’ as someone who not only has a just claim to possession and authority, but someone who has taken upon Himself the task of rearing, sustaining, fostering and bringing everything together, from inception to completion.

–We also remember the word شنئ (x) which appeared earlier in the Qur’an (HQ 5:2, 8), when we were told NOT to let our own resentment/ detestation of any people lead to aggression or injustice against them!

Back to our verses:

As it seems… now that everything was finally complete for the Messenger and his ordeal had ended… now was the time to offer gratitude by way of prayer/ supplication to his Lord AND by way of sharing this abundance with others. It was a time of celebration. And of course, it is natural for us to seek to apply such wisdom to our own lives:

Therefore, as soon as I am done with my research on the final two pages of the Qur’an (in the next week, God-willing) I too shall celebrate appropriately. I intend to offer prayers and sacrifice when I’ve completed this stage. God Alone knows how I finally got here; it is His Grace which helped me achieve this monumental task.

But there is another task which requires YOUR help, dear Reader.

As God is your witness.. how can you help get the word out about what the Arabic Qur’an REALLY says?

Think about this, and let me know.

May God bless our efforts at bringing peace to our troubled world.

Amen.

Peace unto all!

i

Which is why, for example, the Arabic word ‘siraaT’ with a ‘seen/س‘ was specifically asked by the Messenger Muhammad to be written ‘SiraaT’ with a ‘Saadh’/ص … which was an uncommon spelling.

Numeric research on the Qur’an gained ground with the advent of computers. Perhaps the most memorable (and now controversial) study was that of Rashad Khalifa in the 80′s, with his emphasis on the number 19. Indeed, based on the significance given to this number in HQ 74:30, many DO consider it to be a ‘divine code,’ or at least, that the number 19 points to something of great significance… the beginning and the end.. God Himself, the One and Unique. (We spoke of this ‘divine code’ earlier. Put words in ‘Search.’)

ii

Regular readers will remember the definition, which is ‘to ‘combine/ compose/ compound’ one thing to another (as in HQ 8:63), and also denotes ‘hundreds combined together,’ which would also point to something in its ‘thousands,’ which is how we understand the word today.

iii

Noun. A monetary unit of Saudi Arabia, equal to one twentieth of a rial. Origin: from Arabic qirsh, from Slavic groš, via Old High German grosch from medieval Latin (denarius) grossus ‘thick (penny)’. Compare with groschen.”

معجم المقاييس

قرش: أصلٌ صحيح يدلُّ على الجمع والتجمُّع. فالقَرْش: الجمع، يقال تَقَرَّشُوا، إذا تجمَّعوا. ويقولون: إنَّ قُريشاً سمِّيت بذلك. والمُقَرِّشة: السَّنة المَحْل، لأنَّ النّاسَ يضمُّون مواشِيَهم. ويقال: تقارَشَت الرِّماح في الحَرْب، إذا تداخَلَ بعضُها في بعض. ويقولون: إنَّ قريشاً: دابَّةٌ تسكن البحر تغلبُ سائرَ الدَّوابّ. قال:

وقريشٌ هي التي تَسْكُن البحـ *** ـرَ بها سمِّيت قريشٌ قريشا

مختار الصحاح
ق ر ش : القَرْشُ الكسب والجمع .. وبه سميت قُريشُ وهي قبيلة ..

iv

Deen’ means ‘Accountability/ standard of Accountability’ and does NOT mean ‘Religion.’  In fact, religion is about a certain ‘institution’ which has its own beliefs, rituals, and teachings. Being so, it can neither be universal, general, nor can it be it inclusive. To the contrary: Religion is quite EXclusive and is also divisive, which is why we now have so many ‘religions‘ (plural).  Note that in Arabic, the word ‘deen‘ has never had a plural, but it is the Arabs of today who have mistakenly coined the word ‘adyaan.’  Furthermore, everyone knows that the ‘Day/Time of Accountability’ is called ‘yawm el Deen’ in Arabic, a term which can never be translated -or understood- as the Day of ‘religion.’

v

  دع:يدلُّ على حركة ودَفْع واضطراب. فالدَّعُّ: الدفع؛ يقال دَعَعْتُه أَدُعُّه دَعَّاً. قال الله تعالى: {يَوْمَ يُدَعُّونَ إلى نَارِ جهَنَّمَ دعّاً}[الطور 13]. والدَّعْدَعَةُ: تحريك المِكيال ليستوعب الشَّيءَ. والدَّعْدَعةُ: عَدْوٌ في التِواء. ويقال جَفْنةٌ مدَعدَعة. وأصلُه ذاك، أي أنَّها دُعدِعَتْ حتّى امتلأَتْ.

vi 

معجم المقاييس 

معن: سهولةٍ في جريان أو جري أو غير ذلك. ومَعَن الماءُ: جَرَى. وماءٌ معينٌ. ومجارِي الماء في الوادي مُعْنانٌ، كذا قال أبو بكر. والمَعْنة: ماءٌ قليل يجري. ومن الباب أمعَنَ الفرسُ في عَدْوِه. وأمْعَنَ بحقِّي: ذهَبَ به. ورجل مَعْنٌ في حاجته: سَهْل. وأمعنت الأرضُ: رَوِيَتْ. وكلأ مَمْعونٌ: جَرَى فيه الماء. وقولهم للمنزل مَعَانٌ، وزنه فعَال، وجمعه مُعُنٌ. ومَعَن .الوادي: كثُر فيه الماء المَعين

مختار الصحاح

م ع ن :..المَاعُون اسم جامع لمنافع البيت كالقدر والفأس ونحوهما والماعون أيضا الماء والماعون أيضا الطاعة وقوله تعالى { ويمنعون الماعون } قال أبو عبيدة الماعون في الجاهلية كل منفعة وعطية وفي الإسلام الطاعة والزكاة وقيل أصل الماعون معونة والألف عوض عن الهاء و أمْعَنَ الفرس تباعد في عدوه وماء مَعِينٌ أي جار وقيل هو مفعول من عِنْتُ الماء إذا استنبطته على ما سبق في ع ي ن

vii

مَا سَلَكَكُمْ فِي سَقَرَ ﴿٤٢ قَالُوا لَمْ نَكُ مِنَ الْمُصَلِّينَ ﴿٤٣ وَلَمْ نَكُ نُطْعِمُ الْمِسْكِينَ ﴿٤٤ وَكُنَّا نَخُوضُ مَعَ الْخَائِضِينَ ﴿٤٥ وَكُنَّا نُكَذِّبُ بِيَوْمِ الدِّينِ ﴿٤٦ حَتَّىٰ أَتَانَا الْيَقِينُ﴿٤٧

viii 

كثر:  يدلُّ خِلاف القِلّة. من ذلك الشَّيء الكثير، وقد كَثُر. ثم يُزَاد فيه للزِّيادة في النّعت فيقال: الكوثر: الرّجلُ المِعطاء. وهو فَوْعلٌ من الكَثْرة.

والكَوثَر: نهرٌ في الجَنّة. قال الله تعالى: {إنَّا أعْطَينَاكَ الكَوثَرَ} [الكوثر 1] قالوا هذا وقالوا: أراد الخير الكثير.

ويقال: كاثَرَ بنو فلان [بني فلانٍ فكَثَرُوهم، أي كانوا أكثَرَ منهم. وعَدَدٌ كاثِرٌ، أي كثير. 

ix 

نحر:  كلمة واحدة يتفرّعُ منها كلماتُ الباب. هي النَّحْر للإنسانِ وغيره، والجمع نُحور. والنَّحْر: البَزْل في النَّحْر. ونَحَرتُ البعيرَ نَحْراً. والنَّاحِران: عِرْقان في صَدر الفَرَس. ودائرة النَّاحر تكون في الجران إلى أسفَلَ من ذلك. وانتَحَروا على الشَّيء: تشاحُّوا عليه حِرصاً، كأنَّ كلَّ واحدٍ منهم يريد نَحرَ صاحبِه. وأظن معنى يَنحره يَلِي نَحْرَه. والعالم بالشّيء المجرِّب نِحْرِير، وهو إن كان من القياس الذي ذكرناه، بمعنى أنّه ينحر العلمَ نحراً، كقولك: قَتلتُ هذا الشَّيءَ عِلْماً.

x 

شنأ: يدلُّ على البِغضة والتجنُّب للشيء. من ذلك الشَّنُوءَة، وهي التقزُّز؛ ومنه اشتقاق أَزْدِشَنوءة. ويقال: شَنِئَ فُلانٌ فلاناً إِذا أَبغَضَه. وهو الشَّنَآن، وربما خَفَّفوا فقالوا: الشَّنَان

والشنْءُ: الشَّنَآن أيضاً. ورجلٌ مِشناءٌ على مِفعال، إِذا كان يُبْغِضُه النَّاسُ. وأمَّا قولهم شَنِئْت للأمر وبه، إِذا أَقرَرْت.

November 4th, 2013

Qur’an 103; 104; 105. Page 601

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!

PAGE 601 ArabicQur’an

سورة العصر

‘Time Past/ Pressing Time’

 

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

This early Makkan Surah refers to the testimony of Time through the ages. All history shows that Evil came to an evil end. But Time is always in favour of those who have Faith, live clean and pure lives, and know how to wait, in patience and constancy.

 

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

REVEALED shortly after surah 94.

COMMENTS:

>>1. The first Verse calls out a vow, ‘W-al ‘Asr!’ so as to draw our attention to something of great importanceعصر-’aSr (put ‘vow’ in Search’)

Yusuf Ali explains ‘Asr’ similar to what scholars have traditionally indicated, that it could be referring to the specific afternoon prayer by that name OR to Time in general (dahr/ الدهر).

Laleh Bakhtiar explains it as ‘By time through the ages.’

Muhammad Asad, on the other hand, sees it as a measurable period, distinct from ‘Dahr.’

Looking at the occurrences of the root-verbعَصَرَin the Qur’an, and studying its definition from our 1030 year old Lexicon (see footnote i), we get a better idea of what this magnificent root-verb indicates, with its three major connotations:

  • Time; especially ‘later’ or ‘advanced’ time (the term ‘Asr’ indicating a time ‘past Thuhr.’ ‘Mu’Sir’ refers to someone past childhood).

  • Pressure, which brings out ‘yield’ in general (juice from fruits, oil from olives, even the ‘yields’ from a job, as in its ‘income.’ We also notice ‘bounty’ in this definition, since bounty is (literally) the yields of one’s generosity. Some linguists have said that the Qur’anic word ‘mu’Siraat-معصرات‘, which refers to rain-laden clouds, is related to the ‘bounty’ they bear (ii). Lately however, as scientific knowledge has advanced, researchers are saying that it is the change in atmospheric ‘pressure‘ which this Arabic word refers to (also note the word ‘i’Saar-إعصار‘ for hurricanes, or tropical cyclones). This, in itself is a ‘Scientific Marvel.’

  • Attachment /Refuge: This is the third connotation of its root-verb. ‘ASara’ is something one is attached to and seeks shelter in (the lexicon gave the examples of ‘ma’aaSir’ meaning turban and also body-shield).

Looking at the definition of the root-verb, it is evident that the term ‘ASr’ is about Time passing and the fact that it is pressing upon us. It could be a specific point in time, or Time in general.

>>2. As for the important subject-matter of this vow: It liesin the remaining 2 verses, which make this entire short Chapter ONE SINGLE ALL-IMPORTANT VOW:

‘By Time passing/ pressing/ W-al ‘Asr!’

Verily, the Cognizant Human is indeed in Loss.

Except Those Who Have Attained Faith and performed Good deeds,

and have instructed one another *in (upholding) Justice

and have instructed one another *in (upholding) Patient Perseverance!’

If only we’d heeded these verses!

Please take note:

Regular Readers will remember that the verb ‘waSSaa’ is about instruction which is carried forward, generation after generation; THAT is what we were supposed to do:

It is INSUFFICIENT that we follow certain ‘virtues’ on our own!

We should make sure that our children acknowledge these virtues, see these virtues in us, and receive our ‘wassiyyah/ relayed instruction’ that they fulfill these virtues in themselves and in their own children.

We have an example in what both Prophets Abraham and Jacob had ‘wassaa/ instructed’ their children in HQ 2: 132; they instructed their children to make sure that they arrive at the end of life’s journey in Pure Reverence to God, who had chosen the Standard of Accountability for them. Also remember HQ 19: 17, where we were told about ‘Those of the Right/ أصحاب الميمنة‘… where we learnt an important characteristic of these fine people which was that they also instructed one another in ‘mutual Compassion/ marHama/مرحمة‘ ..! All that is VERY important here, because ‘loss’ is NOT just about losing oneself:

The sorriest losers are those who have also lost their families and their children by their own actions/ inaction!

See HQ 42: 45, and 39:15 which says:

So worship whatever you wish, beneath Him! 

Say, truly The Losers are those who have lost their own selves

and their families at the time of Resurrection; that is indeed the Manifest Loss!”

Peace unto all!

سورة الهمزة

‘The Slanderer’

 

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

“This Makkan Surah condemns all sorts of scandal, backbiting, and selfish hoarding of wealth, as destroying the hearts and affections of men.”

 

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“TAKING its conventional name from a noun occurring in the first verse, this surah seems to have been revealed towards the end of the third year of Muhammad’s prophethood – probably after surah 75 (Resurrection).”

COMMENTS:

>>1. The Chapter begins by calling ‘Wail!/ ويل‘ upon every ‘Criticizing /لمزة ‘Discord-Sower/ همزة

  • See 38 instances of ‘wail/ wailing’ in Qur’an, and note that the vast majority is due to lying/ falsifying the truth.

  • Words with the root-verb ‘hamaza- همز‘ appear 3 times in the Qur’an (iii), and we realize that it is about someone who intentionally sows discord by pressuring people into reacting negatively (we came across this in an earlier verse, which was about seeking refuge in God from the ‘ringleaders/ chieftains/ شياطين‘ (of mischief in one’s social circle).

  • Words with the root-verb ‘lamaza’ appear 4 times(لمز iv), and are about the character-type who has nothing but criticism for others.

    (I just realized something quite interesting from HQ 49:11, which says: “…and do not criticize yourselves….!!…” … Is it about our self-critical inner voice which keeps putting us down? I should readdress that verse!).

See the explanation of this verse:

Yusuf Ali

Muhammad Asad

>>2. Verses 2-3 mention another feature of this character-type, related to his materialism: He amasses a fortune, then hoards it, thinking that it will guarantee him longevity (I now wonder if people who spend fortunes on immortalizing their names are among them. Such commemoration is earned when there much good behind it, and NOT because one had paid for it.)

>>3. Verse 4 announces that this person shall be thrown into the ‘Crusher/ HuTamah حطمة/’ ‘ a word mentioned twice in this Chapter only.

Then, Verse 5 asks/ states ‘Maa adraaka’: What (would allow you) to (pursue to) determine what the ‘Crusher’ is?/ You cannot pursue to determine what the Crusher is!

Verse 6 responds, saying that it is God’s ‘Blazing Fire,’ which ‘looks upon/ overwhelms’ (v) their Fou’aad.

New Readers: Fou’aad is related to our mental/emotional response. We spoke about this earlier; put word in ‘Search.’

Remember, we shall be questioned with regard to our hearing, our eyesight and our “fou’aad” (HQ 17:36); our mental/ emotional response to whatever befalls us.

As for Faith: If, from the very beginning, we refuse Faith… then our vision and our fou’aad become unsteady, and prone to wavering (HQ 6:110).

No wonder then that the ‘Blazing Fire’ shall ‘look upon/ overwhelm’ the Fou’aad of those who refused to believe in God (see 18 instances of root-verb طلعin Qur’an).

Furthermore, it shall be closed in upon them, with extending bars.

May our Faith and good deeds keep us away from all that!

Amen.

Peace unto all!

سورة الفيل

‘The ‘Elephant/ The Deception’

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

“This early Makkan Surah refers to an event that happened in the year of birth of our Holy Prophet, say about 570 A.C. Yemen was then under the rule of Abyssinians (Christians) who had driven out the Jewish Himyarite rulers.

Abrahah Ashram was the Abyssinians governor or viceroy. Intoxicated with power and fired by religious fanaticism, he led a big expedition against Makkah, intending to destroy the Ka’bah. He had an elephant or elephants in his train.

But his sacrilegious intentions were defeated by a miracle. No defense was offered by the custodians of the Ka’bah as the Army was too strong for them. But a shower of stones, thrown by flocks of birds, destroyed the invading army almost to a man. The stones produced sores and pustules on the skin, which spread like a pestilence.”

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“TAKING its name from the mention of the “Army of the Elephant”‘ in the first verse, this surah alludes to the Abyssinian campaign against Mecca in the year 570 of the Christian era. Abrahah, the Christian viceroy of the Yemen (which at that time was ruled by the Abyssinians), erected a great cathedral at Sana, hoping thus to divert the annual Arabian pilgrimage from the Meccan sanctuary, the Kabah, to the new church. When this hope remained unfulfilled, he determined to destroy the Kabah; and so he set out against Mecca at the head of a large army, which included a number of war elephants as well, and thus represented something hitherto unknown and utterly astounding to the Arabs: hence the designation of that year, by contemporaries as well as historians of later generations, as “the Year of the Elephant”. Abrahah’s army was totally destroyed on its march (see Ibn Hisham; also Ibn Sa’d I/1, 55 f.) – probably by an extremely virulent outbreak of smallpox or typhus – and Abrahah himself died on his return to Sana.” 

COMMENTS:

Dear Reader:

I can’t take anything for granted any more: Qur’anic explanation must be supported by evidence, so listen to this:

If we disassociated ourselves from preconception (which is what we read in both introductions above) we’d realize that this Chapter MAY not have been about an ‘Elephant’ at all. You see, the word ‘Feel’ at the time of Revelation had other meanings, and I am still looking into different sources to find out whether or not ‘elephant’ was among them: At the time of Revelation, ‘Feel’ was about being ‘weak-minded,’ ‘deceptive,’ and also ‘fat’ (see footnote vi). A reference to ‘elephant’ seems to have come about much later, so I’ll keep my mind open for now.

The question ‘alam tara keyfa’ (Did you not see how …?) is mentioned twice in the Qur’an: In HQ 89:6 the question refers directly to the ‘Aad (tribe), and indirectly (through the conjunction ‘and’-و-at the beginning of Verse 9) to the Thamood (tribe), and also in Verse 10, indirectly to Pharaoh.

Some modern-day thinkers have said that this Chapter must be about the tribe of Lot, seeing that the stone-showers of ‘sijjeel’ (حجارة من سجيل) was what ended their existence (HQ 11:82; 15:74).

I hope to find out WHO it was about. For now, let’s put that matter aside. Suffice it to say that everyone at the time of Revelation knew who this Chapter was about.

So, WHAT happened to them?

Read what Yusuf Ali and Muhammad Asad said about this. ّI think that these people were definitely overcome by something from nature, and not by warfare: Note the 11 times where ‘We sent UPON them’ is mentioned in Qur’anأرسلنا عليهم.

Some say the ‘Teyr abaabeel’ were actual birds throwing actual stones. Others say it may have been the ‘HaSba’ (vii) and ‘judari’ (Scarlet Fever/ Smallpox), both air-borne diseases (hence, in their opinion, the word ‘Teyr;’ see footnote viii). Read Asad’s commentary. Others say that this theory is impossible, simply because the disease would not have been contained, and would have spread to neighboring communities.

Furthermore, the word ‘sijjeel’ is NOT about ‘baked-clay’ as most interpreters seem to have understood (ix). As we can see in footnote,x ‘sijjeel’ is about something (liquid) swelling and being poured, about the ‘give and take’ (of argument), about something recorded.. about something severe. Together with the word ‘Hijaarah’/ stones,’ the plural noun ‘abaabeel-أبابيل‘ (xi), and the description of what these people were ‘rendered and looked like’ (‘Asf-ma’kool’), it DOES seem to be about hailstones.

(See definition of root-verb ‘Asafaعصف (xii)’ and its occurrences in Tanzil Search (6 verses). Note that it is about what happens in storms and by husking… it is about ‘threshing/ thrashing’ or being ‘threshed/ thrashed’

NOW, dear Reader, having read all these notes and definitions, let’s see what the entire scene looks like:

God sent upon them what might have been ‘speeding masses of laden clouds’ (Teyr abaabeel) which were literally ‘throwing at them an outpour of severe stones of swollen liquid (Hijaarah min sijjeel), rendering them into what looks like threshed husks/ stripped shells (of their former selves).

Doesn’t this seem to describe a violent hailstorm? Meteorologists tell us of more than 100 people killed in Bangladesh in 1986 by ‘grapefruit-sized hailstones,’ many weighing more than 2 pounds. See this account of the world’s deadliest known hailstorms; it is SO interesting!

All I can say with certainty is الله أعلم …. God knows best WHO and WHAT this was all about. But Listeners at the time of Revelation did know, and that’s what counted then.

What counts NOW is that we understand that, whether or not this was about an Elephant-led attack on the Ka’ba is not the issue (pending further evidence on ‘feel’). The issue here is that we should reread Qur’anic explanation and rid ourselves of preconception. I believe that the story of an attacking formation of ‘stone-laden birds’ is one of them.

Obviously however, what happened was an incident the Listeners of the time were being reminded of, and it made for a great lesson.

It also made for a good warning.

Peace unto all!

i

Regular Readers know that in such instances, the letter ‘waw-و’ (called the waw of qassam/ oath) VOWS by what comes right after it, with the purpose of highlighting its great importance. That important subject-matter is called in Arabic ‘the response to the vow/ jawaab el qassam.’   

عصر:أصولٌثلاثةصحيحة:

فالأوَّلدهرٌوحين،والثانيضَغْطشيءحتَّىيتحلَّب،والثالثتَعَلُّقٌبشيءٍوامتساكٌبه.

فالأوَّلالعَصْر،وهوالدَّهر. قالالله: {وَالعَصْرِ. إنَّ الإنْسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ}[العصر1- 2]. وربَّماقالواعُصُر. قالامرؤالقيس:

ألاأنْعِمْصباحاًأيُّهاالطَّلَلُالبالي*** وهليَنْعِمَنْمَنكانفيالعُصُرالخالي

قالالخليل: والعَصْران: اللَّيلوالنهار. قال:

ولَنْيلبثالعَصْرانِيومٌوليلة*** إذااختلفاأنيُدرِكاماتَيَمَّما

قالوا: وبهسمِّيتصَلاةُالعصر،لأنَّهاتُعْصَر،أيتؤخَّرعنالظُّهر. والغداةوالعشيُّيسمَّيانالعصرين.

ابنالأعرابيّ: أعْصَرالقومُوأقْصَرُوا،منالعَصْروالقَصْر. ويقال: عَصّرواواحتبسواإلىالعصر. ورويحديثأنّرسولاللهصلىاللهعليهوآلهوسلمقاللرجلٍ: “حافِظْعلىالعَصْرَين“. قالالرَّجل: وماكانتمنلغتنا،فقلت: وماالعصران؟قال: “صلاةٌقبلَطُلوعالشَّمس،وصلاةٌقبلغروبها،يريدصلاةالصُّبحوصلاةالعصر.

فأمّاالجاريةالمُعصِرفقدقاسهناسٌهذاالقياس،وليسالذيقالوهفيهببعيد.

قالالخليلوغيره: الجاريةإذارأتفينفسهازيادةَالشَّبابفقدأعْصَرَتْ،وهيمُعْصِرٌبلغتعَصْرَشبابِهاوإدراكها. قالأبوليلى: إذابلغتالجاريةُوقَرُبتمنحَيْضهافهيمُعْصِر. وأنشد:

جاريةٌبسَفَواندارُها*** قدأعصَرَتْأوقَدْدناإعصارُها

قالقومٌ: سمِّيتمعصراًلأنَّهاتغيَّرَتعنعَصْرها. وقالآخرونَفيهغيرهذا،وقدذكرناهفيموضعه.

والأصلالثَّانيالعُصارة: ماتحَلَّبَمنشيءٍتَعصِره. قال:

* عصارةالخُبزالذيتَحَلَّبا

وهوالعصير. وقالفيالعُصَارة:

العودُيُعصَرماؤُه*** ولكلِّعِيدانٍعُصَارهْ

وقالابنالسِّكِّيت: تقولالعربُ: “لاأفعلهمادامَالزيتُيُعْصَر“.

قالأوس: فلابُرْءمنضَبَّاءَوالزيتُيُعْصَر*

والعربتجعلالعُصارةوالمُعْتَصَرمثلاًللخيروالعطاء،إنهلكريمالعُصارةوكريمالمعتصر. وعَصَرتالعنب،إذاوَلِيتَهبنَفْسك. واعتصرته،إذاعُصِرلكخَاصّةً. والمِعْصار: شيءكالمِخْلاةيُجعلفيهالعِنَبُويُعصَر.

ومنالباب: المُعْصِرات: سحائبُتجيءُبمطَر. قالاللهسبحانه:{وَأَنْزَلْنَامِنَالمُعْصِراتِمَاءًثَجّاجاً}[النبأ14]. وأُعْصِرَالقومُ،إذاأتاهمالمطر. وقرئت:{فِيهِيُغَاثُالنَّاسُوَفيهِيُعْصَرُون}[يوسف49]،أييأتيهمالمطر. وذلكمشتقٌّمنعَصْرالعنبوغيره. فأمَّاالرِّياحوتسميتُهمإيَّاهاالمُعْصِراتفليسيبعُدأنْيُحمَلعلىهذاالبابمنجهةالمجاورَة،لأنَّهالمّاأثارتالسَّحابَالمعصراتسمِّيتمعصِراتوإعصاراً.

والإعصار: الغبارالذييسطعمستديراً*؛والجمعالأعاصير.

ويقالفيغُبارالعَجاجةأيضاً: إعصار. قالاللهتعالى: {فأَصَابَها إعصارٌ فِيهِ نَارٌ فَاحْتَرَقَتْ}[البقرة266]. ويقال: مرَّفلانٌولثيابهِعَصَرَةٌ،أيفَوْحُطِيبٍوهَيْجُه. وهومأخوذمنالإعصار. وفيالحديث: “مرَّتامرأةمتطيِّبةلذَيْلهاعَصَرَة“.

ومنالبابالعَصْروالاعتصار. قالالخليل: الاعتصار: أنيَخْرُجمنإنسانٍمالٌبغُرْمٍأوبوجهمنالوُجوه.

قالابنُالأعرابيّ: يقال: بنوفلانٍيعتصرونالعطاء. قالالأصمعي: المعْتَصِر: الذييأخذمنالشَّيءيُصيبمنه.

ويقالللغَلّةعُصارة. وفسِّرقولُهتعالى: {وفيه يَعْصِرُون}[يوسف49]،قال: يستغلُّونبأرَضيهِم. وهذامنالقياس،لأنَّهشيءٌكأنّهاعْتُصركمايُعتَصرالعِنَبُوغيرُه. قالالخليل: العَصْر: العطاء. قالطرَفة:

لوكانفيأملاكناأحدٌ*** يَعصِرُفيناكالذيتَعْصِرُ

أيتُعطِي.

والأصلالثالث: العَصَر: الملجأ،يقالاعتَصَربالمكان،إذاالتجأإليه.

ويقال: ليسلكمنهذاالأمرعُصْرة،علىفُعلة،وعَصَرعلىتقدير[فَعَلٍ،أيملجأ.

إنّالمعاصر: العمائم. وقالوا: هيثيابٌسُود. والصحيحمنذلكأنَّالمعاصرالدّروع،مأخوذمنالعَصْر،لأنّهيُعْصَرُبها. واللهأعلم.

ـــــــــــــــــــ

ii

We already know that the verses which mention 'mu'Siraat' are about the tropics, as indicated by the 'gushing and spurting' of the rain pattern they describe-ماءً ثجّاجا- and also the vegetation، which is of 'lush gardens of twisting vine' جنّات ألفافا.

Many people know that 90 percent of the worlds vines are in tropical forests, but do people know that 92 percent of vines twist in a counter-clockwise direction? This is interesting!

Read this piece which concludes with a scientific theory about there being "…...a left-handed bias of all biological molecules in nature."

 

We know that all planets rotate counter-clockwise (even Venus when viewed from above the South, rather than the North Pole).

Does all that info help us understand why we circumambulate counter-clockwise around the Ka'ba?

When the 'Physical' is well-aligned with nature, the 'Mental/ Spiritual' is too, and can soar more readily to its Creator.

iiiHere, and also inHQ 23:97; 68:11.

همز:كلمةٌ تدلُّ على ضَغْطٍ وعَصْر. وهمَزْت الشَّيءَ في كفِّي. ومنه الهَمز في الكلام، كأنَّه يَضْغَط الحرف. ويقولون: همزَ بِهِ الأرض. وقوسٌ هَمْزَى: شديدةُ الدَّفعِ للسَّهم. والهمَّاز: العَيَّاب، وكذا الهُمَزَة. وَهمْزُ الشَّيطان كالمُوتَة

تَغلِبُ على قَلْب الإنسان تَذهب به

iv

Also in HQ 9: 58, 79; 49:11.

(لمز)  اللام والميم والزاء كلمةٌ واحدة، وهي اللَّمْز، وهو العَيب. يقال لَمَزَ يَلمِزُ لَمْزاً. قال الله تعالى: {وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ

يَلْمِزُكَ في الصَّدَقاتِ}[التوبة 58]. ورجل لَمَّازٌ ولُمَزَة، أي عَيَّاب

v

 (طلع: يدلُّ على ظهورٍ وبُروز، يقال طلعت الشمس طُلوعاً ومَطْلَعاً. والمَطْلِع: موضع طلوعها. قال الله تعالى: {حَتَّى مَطْلَِعِ الفَجْر}[القدر 5]. فمن فتح اللام أراد المصدر، ومن كسر أراد الموضع الذي تطلعُ منه. ويقال طَلَعَ علينا فلانٌ، إذا هجم. وأَطْلَعْتُك على الأمر إِطْلاعاً. وقد أطلعتُك طِلْعَهُ. والطِّلاع: ما طَلعت عليه الشمس من الأرض. وفي الحديث: “لو أنَّ لي طِلاَعَ الأرض ذهباً“. ونَفْسٌ طُلَعَةٌ: تتطلَّعُ للشيء. وامرأةٌ طُلَعَةٌ، إذا كانت تكثر الاطّلاع. والطَّلْع: طَلْعُ النّخلة، وهو الذي يكونُ في جوفه الكافُور، وقد أطلعت النخلة.

ومن الباباستطلعتُ رأيَ فلانٍ، إذا نظرتَ ما الذي يَبْرُزُ إليك منه. وطَلْعة الإنسان: رؤيته؛ لأنَّها تطلُع، ورمى فلان فأَطْلَعَ وأشْخَص، إذا مرَّ سهمُه برأسِ الغَرَض. وطليعة الجيش: من يطَّلِع طِلْعَ العدوّ، والمُطَّلَع: المأْتَى؛ يقال أين مُطَّلع هذا الأمر، أي مأْتاه. فأمَّا قوله عليه السَّلام: “لافتدَيْتُ به من هول المُطَّلع“. .

vi

Linguistic evidence from our oldest, 1030 year old Lexicon -Mu’jam al Maqayees- tells us:

- The root-verb ‘fayala’ indicates being ‘limp, weak,’ and that ‘perhaps the fat in the hip area’ is related to that.

- A ‘Feel’ is a ‘weakbrained’ person.

- There’s a game called ‘mufaayala’ which involves hiding an object in a hole in the ground, dividing it into two parts, and asking others to guess where it is.

Note that this Lexicon, which is the OLDEST, tells us NOTHING about ‘Feelفيل‘ indicating an animal/ ‘elephant.’ Now pay attention to this:

Another Lexicon, Lissaan al Arab, which was compiled THREE HUNDRED years later, tells us right from the start, in the first line of its definition:

-Feel’ means ‘Elephant.’

Then it goes on to tell us of the other connotations mentioned above, including the game which Arab boys used to play by hiding an object in a hole in the ground, dividing it into two, and asking others to guess where it is. When the person guesses it wrong they say: ‘You are a weak-brain; a ‘Feel’… a dimwit.

So, are ‘aSHaab al Feel/أصحاب الفيل‘ the People of the Elephant… or ‘the People of Deception?’

God Alone knows. But now my question is: Other than the ‘Seerah’ account of the Prophet’s life by Ibn Hisham, is there ANY other reference which tells us of an animal.. the Elephant?

معجم المقاييس:

فيل:أصلٌيدلُّعلىاسترخاءٍوضَعْفٍ. يقال: رجلٌفِيلُالرَّأْي. قالالكُمَيت:

بنيربِّالجوادِفلاتَفِيلوا*** فماأنتمْفنَعذِرَكملِفِيلِ

ويمكنأنيكونالقائلمنهذا،وهواللَّحمالذيعلىخُرْبةالوَرِك. ويسمَّىللينِه.

وقالأبوعبيد: كانبعضُهميجعلالفائِلَعِرقاً.

ومماشذَّعنهذاالبابالمُفَايَلة: لُعْبة. ويخبِّئونالشَّيءفيالتُّرابويَقْسِمونهقسمين،ويسألونفيأيِّهماهو. قالطَرَفة:

يشُقُّحَبَابَالماءِحَيزومُهابها*** كماقَسَمالتُّرْبَالمُفَايِلُباليدِ

لسان العرب: 

الفِيل: معروف، والجمع أَفْيال وفُيُول وفِيَلة؛ قال ابن السكيت: ولا تقل أَفْيِلة، والأُنثى، فِيلة، وصاحبها فَيَّال قوله «وصاحبها فيال» مثله في القاموس، وكتب عليه هكذا في النسخ والأصوب وصاحبه فيال .قال سيبويه: يجوز أَن يكون أَصل فيل فُعْلاً فكسر من أَجل الياء كما قالوا أَبيض وبِيض؛ قال الأَخفش: هذا لا يكون في الواحد إِنما يكون في الجمع؛ وقال ابن سيده: قال سيبويه يجوز أَن يكون فِيل فِعْلاً وفُعْلا فيكون أَفْيال، إِذا كان فُعْلاً، بمنزلة الأَجناد والأَجْحار، ويكون الفُيُول بمنزلة الخِرَجَةَ قوله «ويكون الفيول بمنزلة الخرجة» هكذا في الأصل ولعله محرف، والأصل: ويكون الفيلة بمنزلة الخرجة وأن في الكلام سقطاً)يعني جمع خُرْج. وليلة مثل لون الفِيل أَي سَوْداء لا يهتدي لها، وأَلوان الفِيَلة كذلك.واسْتَفْيَل الجملُ: صار كالفِيل؛ حكاه ابن جني في باب اسْتَحْوذ وأَخواته؛ وأَنشد لأَبي النجم:

يريد عَينَيْ مُصْعَب مُسْتَفْيِل

والتفيُّل: زيادة الشباب ومُهْكَته؛ قال الشاعر:

حتى إِذا ما حانَ من تَفَيُّله

وقال العجاج:

كلّ جُلالٍ يَمْلأُ المُحَبَّلا

عجَنَّس قَرْم، إِذا تَفَيَّلا

قال: تفيَّل إِذا سمن كأَنه فِيل. ورجل فَيِّل اللحم: كثيرة، وبعضهم يهمزه فيقول فَيْئِل، على فَيْعِل.

وتفيَّل النبات: اكْتَهَل؛ عن ثعلبفَال رأْيُه يَفِيل فَيْلولة: أَخْطأَ وضَعُف. ويقال: ما كنت أُحب أَن يرى في رأْيك فِيَالة. ورجل فِيلُ الرأْي أَي ضعيف الرأْي؛ وفي حديث علي يصف أَبا بكر، رضي الله عنهما: كنتَ للدِّين يَعْسوباً أوَّلاً حين نفَر الناس عنه وآخراً حين فَيَّلوا، ويروى فَشِلوا، أَيوو حين قال رأْيُهُم فلم يَسْتبينوا الحق. يقال: فال الرجل في رأْيه وفَيَّل إِذا لم يصِب فيه، ورجل فائل الرأْي وفالُه وفَيَّله؛ وفي حديثه الآخر: إِنْ تمموا على فِيَالة هذا الرأْي انقطع نِظام المسلمين؛ المحكم: وفي رأْيه فَيالة وفِيالة وفُيُولة.والمُفايَلة والفِيَال والفَيال لُعْبة للصبيان، وقيل: لعبة لفِتيان الأَعراب بالتراب يَخْبَؤُون الشيء في التراب ثم يقسِمونه بقسمين ثم يقول الخابئ لصاحبه: في أَي القسمين هو؟ فإِذا أَخطأَ قال له: فال رأْيُك

vii

Note that the name ‘HaSba’ (which Arabs seem to have later given to the disease) comes from the root-verb HaSaba which refers to ‘stones,’ seen in variations of the word in 5 verses of the Qur’an.

viii

Note:

We spoke of the word ‘Ttayaraطيرearlier, and noted that in the Lexicon it denotes ‘swift/ weightless/ effortless transmission or diffusion… and ANYTHING quick in its dispersal, such as morning light and birds.  Although Arabs presently use this word only as a noun which means ‘Birds,’ its historic usage also denoted the Brain, as well as demeanor which is ‘flighty’ as opposed to ‘serene.’ Everything SWIFT is ‘Tta’irطائر- and a swift horse is ‘muttaar.’ To read that entire post -WITH definitions of ‘Ttayara’- please put these words in Search: Tta’ir طائر

ix

They based their understanding on a saying of Ibn Abbas, which many Arab Commentators referred to in passing, yet did not validate.

x

سجل:يدلُّ على انصبابِ شيءٍ بعد امتلائِهِ. من ذلك السَّجْل، وهو الدَّلو العظيمة. ويقال سَجَلت الماءَ فانسجَلَ، وذلك إذا صَبْبَته. ويقال للضَّرْع الممتلئ سَجْل. والمساجلة: المفاخرة، والأصل في الدِّلاء، إذا تساجَلَ الرجلان، وذلك تنازعُهما، يريد كلُّ واحدٍ منهما غلبةَ صاحبه. ومن ذلك الشّيء المُسْجَل، وهو المبذول لكلِّ أحد، كأنَّه قد صُبَّ صبّاً..فأما السِّجِلّ فمن السَّجْل والمساجلةوفيه أيضاً كالمساجلة، لأنّه عن منازعةٍ ومُداعاة. ومن ذلك قولهم: الحرب سِجَالٌ، أي مباراةٌ مرَّة كذا ومرةً كذا. وقالوا: السِّجِّيل: الشديد.

في قوم لوط: “سجيل منضود 

نضد:يدلُّ على ضَمّ شيءٍ إلى شيءٍ في اتِّساقٍ وجمعٍ، منتصباً أو عريضاً. ونَضَدْتُ الشيءَ بعضَه إلى بعضٍ متَّسقاً أو مِن فَوق. والنَّضَد: المنضود من الثِّياب.

والنَّضَد: السَّرِيرُ يُنضَد عليه المتاع. وأنْضاد الجِبال: جنادلُ بعضُها فوق بعض. والنَّضَد من السَّحاب كالصَّبير، يكون بعضُه إلى بعض، والجمع أنضاد. وأنضادُ القوم: جماعاتهم وعَدَدُه ونَضَدُ الرَّجُلِ: أعمامُه وأخوالُه الذين يتجمَّعون لنُصرته. والنَّضَد: الشَّرَف. ونَضائد الدِّيباج: جمع نَضِيدة، وهي الوِسادةُ وما حُشِيَ من المَتَاع. قال ابن دريد:وما نُضِد بعضُه على بعضٍ فهو نَضِيد.

xi

Linguists say that the singular could either have been ‘ibaalah,’ ‘ibwal,’ or ibyil’… indicating ‘masses’ (see Arabic). I will ask linguists about this, because it does seem related to ‘ibil’ which we spoke of earlier in HQ 88:17, and which Zamakhshari had said was another name for clouds.

 

xii

عصف:يدلُّعلىخِفّةٍوسرعة. فالأوَّلمنذلكالعَصْف: ماعلىالحبِّمنقُشورالتّبن. والعَصْف: ماعلىساقالزَّرعمنالوَرَقالذييَبسفتفتَّت،كلذلكمنالعَصْف. قالاللهسبحانه:{فَجَعَلَهُمكَعَصْفٍمَأْكُولٍ}[الفيل5]،قالبعضُالمفسِّرين: العصف: كلُّزرعٍأُكِلحَبُّهوبقيتبنُه. وكانابنُالأعرابييقول: العَصْف: ورقُكلِّنابت.

ويقال: عَصَفْتُالزَّرْعَ،إذاجَزَزْتَأطرافَهوأكلتَه،كالبقل. ويقال: مكانٌمُعْصِف،أيكثيرالعَصْف. والريحالعاصف: الشَّديدة. قالاللهتعالى: {جَاءَتْهَارِيحٌعَاصِفٌ}[يونس22]. هذاالذيذكرهالخليل،ومعنىالكلامأنَّهاتستخِفُّالأشياءَفتذهبُبهاتَعصِفبها.

وقالبعضأهلِالعلم: ريحعاصفةٌنعتٌمبنيٌّ* علىفَعَلَتْعَصَفتْ. وريحعاصفٌ: ذاتعُصُوف،لايُرادبهفَعَلَت،وخرجَتْمخرجَلابنٍوتامِر.

ومنقياسالباب: النَّاقةالعَصُوف: التيتَعصِفبراكبهافتمضيكأنّهاريحٌفيالسُّرعة. ويقالأعصفَتْأيضاً. والحَربتَعْصِفبالقوم: تذهبُبهم.

ونعامةٌعَصوفٌ: سريعة. وقدقلناإنَّالعَصْف: الخِفَّةوالسُّرعة.

ومنالباب: عَصَفواعتصف،إذاكسب. وذاكأنّهيخفُّفياكتداحِه.

وهوذوعَصْفٍ،أيحيلة.

November 2nd, 2013

Qur’an 102: 1-8 page 600

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!

Yusuf Ali’s explanation of this Chapter.

Muhammad Asad’s explanation of this Chapter.

Laleh Bakhtiar’s explanation of this Chapter.

سورة التكاثر

‘The Accumulation/ Proliferation’

 

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

This probably early Makkan Surah gives a warning against acquisitiveness, i.e. the passion for piling up quantities or numbers, whether in the good things of this world, or in manpower or in other forms of megalomania, which leave no time or opportunity for pursuing the higher things of life.”

 

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

THIS early Meccan surah is one of the most powerful, prophetic passages of the Qur’an, illuminating man’s unbounded greed in general, and, more particularly, the tendencies which have come to dominate all human societies in our technological age.“

COMMENTS:

The word ‘al takaathur’ appears twice in the Qur’an, here and in HQ 57:20, where the accumulation/ proliferation is about BOTH material wealth and progeny. These two are considered the main attractions and distractions in life (HQ 63:9). Indeed, progeny is what earlier explanations of the Qur’an emphasize in these verses; ‘clan-size’ is quite important in most societies.

PAGE 600 ArabicQur’an

 

1.  The first two Verses state a fact, that ‘You (Listeners) had been distracted by the ‘Accumulation/ Proliferation/ Increase’ (of wealth and progeny), until you visited the graves.’

Indeed.. we know how life is, and how distracting it is to be constantly attempting to increase our wealth and our ‘clan,’ or to prove to ourselves or others that both are up to par. Indeed, all our distractions are related to either of these interests.

Note that our ‘distraction’ ends when we die, and that the time we spend in our graves is so short, it is considered a ‘visit,’ and we shall come to know that!

2.  The rest of the Chapter informs and warns us of that, as Verses 3-4 assert that ‘Nay, you shall indeed come to know..’

In fact, Verse 5 seems to indicate that, had we possessed the knowledge of Certitude, we would have indeed seen/ envisioned the Scalding/ JaHeem (seen it with our knowledge).

But evidently, we SHALL indeed see it, in time (thumma), with the (actual) eye of Certitude (not the mind’s eye).

And in time, we shall indeed be questioned (!) with regard to (all) the pleasures and well-being (of Life: What we’d been given in life, versus what we did with it).

Quite troubling verses, which show us the extent of our responsibility.

Peace unto all!

___________

 

November 2nd, 2013

Qur’an 101: 1-11 page 600

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!

Yusuf Ali’s explanation of this Chapter.

Muhammad Asad’s explanation of this Chapter.

Laleh Bakhtiar’s explanation of this Chapter.

سورة القارعة

‘The Striker’

 

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

This Makkan Surah describes the Judgment Day as the Day of Clamour, when men will be distracted and the landmarks of this world will be lost, but every deed will be weighed in a just balance, and find its real value and setting..”

 

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

AN early Meccan surah, most probably revealed after surah 95 (At-Tin). “

COMMENTS:

This Chapter about a phenomenal occurrence which heralds in the Hereafter. The closest thing to it perhaps, in our experience, is being struck by both thunder and lightening, magnified beyond imagination.

Here, this Chapter defines ‘the Striker/ Al Qaari’ah for us, showing the dramatic changes it generates on this earth. The term ‘the Striker/ Al Qaari’ahالقارعةappears 4 times in the Qur’an (i).

PAGE 600 ArabicQur’an

 

>>1. Verses 1-3 ‘hit’ us three times with the powerful world ‘The Striker/ Al Qaari’ah’ asking the listener about it, then telling him –in two words: ‘maa adraaka,’ that he would not be able to pursue it to determine what it is.  (See 12 similar statements/ questions. Put ‘daraa’ in ‘Search.)

>>2. Then Verse 4 tells us the state in which people (Naas/ Cognizant Humans) will be:

‘On that day/ at that time’ people will be like scattered moths.’

But, before our imaginations begin to show us ‘moths scattering’ in familiar surroundings, Verse 5 immediately indicates that NOTHING about earth will be familiar at that time:

And the mountains will be like tufted wool/ عهن

Oh!!

In an image similar to HQ 70:9, we understand that this would be taking place as earth itself is being transformed into ‘another’ earth (HQ 14:48).

Truly awful images, if one paused to think!

>>3. But even more awful than that, are Verses 6-9 which bring us to Judgement, and the evidence presented for each of us, plus the VERDICT passed:

The person whose ‘scales are heavy-laden’ (with Good deeds) shall be in a well-pleasing state of being (ii see HQ 69:21).

The person whose ‘scales are light-weighted’ (lacking Good deeds) shall find himself plummeting ‘headlong/ ‘ (umm) into the abyss.

Then the listener is asked/ told ‘maa adraaka’ (can he..? / he cannot) determine what it is:

We’d spoken of ‘umm’ earlier; it is about the foundation and origin of something or its direction (put word in ‘Search’). The noun ‘umm’ mostly stands for ‘mother’… the verb ‘amma’ is related to directing or leading oneself or others (think of the word ‘imaam’); the descriptive noun/ adjective ‘ummi’ is about being unindoctrinated/ untaught; also the ‘umm’ of one’s head is the brain.. etc..

For the persons mentioned above, their ‘umm’ is in the abyss into which they plummet.

An intense Fire (is what it is!).

This Chapter closes on a note of dire Dissuasion, after having showed us in a few verses the importance of accumulating all the Good Deeds we possibly can.

Peace unto all!

________

i

قرع:معظمُ البابِ ضربُ الشيء. يقال قَرَعْتُ الشيءَ أقرَعُه: ضربتُه. ومُقارَعة الأبطال: قَرعُ بعضِهم بعضاً. والإقراع والمُقارَعة: هي المساهمَة. وسمِّيت بذلك لأنَّها شيءٌ كأنَّه يُضرَب. وقارعتُ فلاناً فقرعتُه، أي أصابتني القُرعةُ دونَه. والقارعة: الشَّديدة من شدائد الدهر؛ وسمِّيت بذلك لأنَّها تقرع الناس، أي تضربُهم بشدَّتها. والقارعة: القِيامةُ، لأنَّها تَضرِبُ وتُصيب النَّاسَ بإقراعها.

ومن الباب: قولهم: رجلٌ قَرِعٌ، إذا كان يَقبل مشورةَ المُشير. ومعنى هذا أنَّه قُرِع بكلامٍ في ذلك فقبِله. فإنْ كان لا يقبلُها قيل: فلانٌ لا يُقرَع. ويقولون: أقرَعْتُ إلى الحقِّ إقراعاً: رجَعت.

ومن الباب القَرِيع، وهو السيِّد، سمِّي بذلك لأنه يعوَّلُ عليه في الأمور، فكأنَّهُ يقرَع بكثرةِ ما يُسأل ويستعان بهِ فيه. والدَّليل على هذا أنَّهم يسمُّونه مقروعاً أيضاً.

ثم يُحمَل على هذا ويستعار، فقالوا: أقرَعَ فلانٌ فلاناً: أعطاه خيرَ مالِه.

وخيارُ المال: قُرعتُه، وسمِّي لأنَّه يعَوَّل عليه في النَّوائب كما قلناه في القَرِيع.

وممّا اتّسعوا فيه والأصل ما ذكرناه: القَريعة، وهو خير بيتٍ في الرّبع، إن كان بَرْدٌ فخيارُ كِنِّهِ، وإن كان حرٌّ فخِيارُ ظلِّه.

ومما شذَّ عن هذا الأصل القَرَع، وفَصِيلٌ مقرَّع.

والقَرَع أيضاً: ذَهابُ الشَّعَْر من الرأس.

ii

عيش:يدلُّ على حياةٍ وبقاء، قال الخليل: العيش: الحياة. والمعيشة: الذي يعيش بها الإنسان: من مطعمٍ ومشربٍ وما تكون به الحياة. والمعيشة: اسمٌ لما يعاش به. وهو في عِيشةٍ ومَعيشةٍ صالحة.والمعاش يجري مجرى العَيْش. تقول عاشَ يَعِيشُ عَيْشاً ومعاشاً. وكلُّ شيء يُعاش به أو فيه فهو مَعاشٌ. قال الله تعالى: {وَجَعَلْنَا النَّهَارَ مَعَاشاً}[النبأ ، والأرضُ مَعاشٌ للخلق، فيها يلتمسون معايِشَهم. وقال بعضهم: عاش فلانٌ عَيْشُوشةً صالحة، وإنّهم لمتعيِّشون، إذا كانت لهم بُلْغةٌ من عَيش. ورجل عائِشٌ، إذا كانت حالُه حسنةً.

November 2nd, 2013

Qur’an 100: 1-11 page 5

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!

Yusuf Ali’s explanation of this Chapter.

Muhammad Asad’s explanation of this Chapter.

Laleh Bakhtiar’s explanation of this Chapter.

سورة العاديات

‘The Over-Runners’

  

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

This is one of the earlier Makkan Surahs. In the depth of its mystery and the rhythm and sublimity of its language and symbolism, it may be compared with S.79. Its subject matter is the irresistible nature of spiritual power and knowledge, contrasted with unregenerate man’s ingratitude, pettiness, helplessness, and ignorance..”

 

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

….since verses 6-11 are undoubtedly condemnatory, we must conclude that the first five verses, too, have the same or at least, a similar – character. This character becomes at once obvious if we dissociate ourselves from the preconceived notion that the imagery of “the chargers” is used here in a laudatory sense. In fact, the opposite is the case. Beyond any doubt, “the chargers” symbolize the erring human soul or self – a soul devoid of all spiritual direction, obsessed and ridden by all manner of wrong, selfish desires, madly, unseeingly rushing onwards, unchecked by conscience or reason, blinded by the dust-clouds of confused and confusing appetites, storming into insoluble situations and, thus, into its own spiritual destruction. “

COMMENTS:

Although I am inclined to agree with Muhammad Asad who thinks that the first few verses are not about a ‘battle-scene,’ I do not adopt his premise that they are about the erring human self. I do see his logic, but I envisage all these descriptions as pertaining to Natural Phenomena, hitting our atmosphere to end life on earth as we know it.

Indeed, if this short Chapter had been about a literal battle-field (booty and all), it would be warning us against it, since the rest of the verses turn to reprimand the Cognizant Human, especially for his Greed (i).

PAGE 599 ArabicQur’an

 

1.> This Chapter begins with a letter و which is understood as ‘waw al-qasam,’ a ‘vow.’ As we know, vowing ‘By the ….’ serves to draw the listeners’ attention as it leads up to information of supreme importance (put ‘vow’ in ‘Search’).

The important information here is in Verses 6- 11, which summarize what we need to know about Human Nature, the ‘gathering’ of the sum of what’s in our hearts/ minds (for judgement !!!), and God’s complete knowledge of everything about us!

The subject of the vow (after the و) is the ‘Aadiyaat/ Overrunners/ Encroachers/ Transgressors (ii).’

See 10 similar occurrences of its root-verb in Qur’an. Note that Aadiyaat is the feminine of Aadoon, Aadeen -from the masculine singula Aad. Remember that natural phenomena are always feminine plural, as are animals and objects.

We are told here that these ‘Overrunners’ do so in a manner which is ‘DhabHaa’ (an Adverb, describing their manner of ‘overrunning’). Our Lexicon tells us that the root-verb DhabaHa ضبح (iii) with its two connotations, is related either to sound or shape:

-Sound: the sound of wolves.

-Shape: incendiary fire, something burnt into cinders and ash; also, a sparking flint-stone is a ‘maDhbooHa’.

So Verse 1 is about entities which ‘overrun,’ sound like wolves/ are fiery, incinerating, and leave ashes in their wake.

2.> Verse 2 is about al-Mooriyaat (iv), the ‘Sparkers/ Concealers’ also feminine plural, ‘sparking/ lighting’ (again and again). This description could be of the same entities performing other actions, or they could be about completely different entities, following the first.

Note that the French words ‘moire’ and ‘moiréare derivatives of the Arabic word مواري -mooari- from the same root-verb we are now discussing, about light being reflected here and hidden there. There are many European words of Arabic origin (which few know about); put ‘Etymology’ in ‘Search.’

3.> Verses 3 -5 refer to the ‘Raiders/ Mugheeraat’ of ‘SubH/ morning/ red (v)’ which, in it (in the SubH) give out (vi) a “naq’e” (نقع vii)), and center themselves within a gathering.

The word “naq’e” has several connotations in some dictionaries. In the one we use here (which is the oldest) it has only two, related to ‘soaking; lying in still water’ and to ‘a loud noise.’ But another, wide-spread interpretation of this verse says that “naq’e” is ‘dust,’ and especially the dust of battle, which seems supported by the old poem I spoke of in the footnote. So all I can say is.. Allahu A’lam/ God knows best:

Each generation would naturally understand these verses according to its knowledge at the time.

I do believe that this is about a scene of great magnificence, as our earth gets hit by natural phenomena. Others may or may not agree, but here is someone who has a similar opinion, although he sees this phenomena as something which already exists, namely the Northern Lights, with their distinctive ‘moiré effect.

Then, after the introductory verses, comes the main topic which these verses were leading up to:

4.> Verses 6-7 assert that the Cognizant Human/ Insaan does indeed ‘break-away (كند viii)’ from his Lord, and that He/ he (God/ the human) is Witness to that.

This is SUCH an important statement of fact!

A major symptom of having ‘broken-away’ from our Lord is not practicing ‘shukr’ in life. ‘Shukr’ is not about simple gratitude of feeling to Him, but it is about accepting what little we may have been given, and then: Making the most out of it, until it achieves abundance! How many of us do that? May God forgive us and help us mend…

New Readers: Put words in Search.

Verse 8 adds -with an ‘and’- that he (the human) is in ‘intense/ severe/ shadeed’ (ix) LOVE of (worldly) good/ ‘kheyr,’ which is a negative trait here, as in HQ 38:32.

‘Kheyr’ does appear in several verses to mean ‘worldly-good’ such as wealth, power.. etc.. which people clutch onto, and try not to share!

5.> Verses 9- 11 present DIRE warning!

Doesn’t he (the Cognizant Human) know that when the contents of the graves are scattered about, and the contents of the hearts and minds (x) are collected (حصلxi) .. that THEIR LORD, OF THEM, AT THAT TIME, IS FULLY ACQUAINTED???

Since every question in the Qur’an receives an answer, even in silence, and now we know that the contents of our hearts and minds are to be collected…we better say something here!

“Balaa Rabbana…Yes, indeed, our Lord!

Do forgive us and let us enter into your Mercy, for You are the Most Merciful of all those who have mercy..”

(This is similar to what Prophet Moses said, peace upon him (HQ 7:151) after he returned to his people with the Tablets and Commandments, only to find them worshipping the calf!)

Peace unto all!

________

i

Perhaps the toughest thing for us, as we attempt to understand such analogous ‘mutashaabihaat’ verses, is to restrain ourselves so as to stay within the parameters of Language and Context.  And although we cannot help but wonder, we must make sure that our voices and our pens DO NOT WANDER, which is why we are told to seek refuge in God.

Indeed, Self-restraint is THE REASON for seeking refuge in God!

When reading/ reciting/ perusing the Qur’an, we are absolutely required, without exception, to ‘seek refuge in God’ from deviating.’

For the Messenger, peace upon him, this seems related to his perfect delivery of it.  As for us, it is to remind us to be careful NOT to misunderstand and misrepresent its verses, as we activate the six components of IQRA.

ii

عدو:يدلُّعلىتجاوُزٍفيالشيءوتقدُّمٍلماينبغيأنيقتصرعليه. منذلكالعَدْو،وهوالحُضْر. تقول: عدايعدوعَدْواً،وهوعادٍ. قالالخليل: التعدّي: تجاوزماينبغيأنيُقْتَصَرعليه. وتقرأهذهالآيةعلىوجهين: {فَيَسُبُّوا الله عَدْواً بغيرِ علمٍ}و{عُدُوَّاً}[الأنعام108]. والعادي: الذييعدوعلىالناسظُلْماًوعُدواناً. وفلانٌيعدوأمرَكَ،وماعَدَاأنْصَنَعكذا. ويقالمنعَدْوِالفرس: عَدَوَانٌ،أيجيِّدالعَدْوِوكثيرُه. وذئبعَدَوَانٌ: يعدُوعلىالناس.

iii 

ضبح: أصلانِ صحيحان: أحدهما صوتٌ، والآخَرُ تغيُّرُ لون من فعلِ نار.

فالأَوَّل قولُهم: ضَبَحَ الثّعلبُ يَضْبَح ضَبْحاً. وصَوْتُهُ الضُّبَاح، وهو ضابح..

وأمَّا الأصل الثاني فالضَّبْح: إحراقُ أعالي العُود بالنار. والضِّبْح: الرَّماد. والحجارة المضبوحة هي قَدَّاحة النّار، التي كأنها محترقة..ويقال الانضباح تغيُّرُ اللون إلى السواد

iv 

وري: بناءٌ على غير قياس، وكلِمه أفراد

يقال وَرَى الزّندُ يَرِي وَرْياً، وَوَراهُ، خَرجَتْ نارُه. وحكى بعضهم وَرِيَ يَرِي، مثل ولِيَ يَلِي.

واللَّحم الواري: السَّمين. والوَرَى: الخَلْق. وأمَّا قولهم ورَاءَكَ فإنَّه يكون من خَلف، ويكون من قُدّام.

v 

صبح: هو لونٌ من الألوان قالوا أصله الحُمْرة. قالوا: وسمِّيَ الصُّبْحُ صُبْحاً لحُمْرَته، كما سمِّيَ المِصْباح مِصباحاً لحُمْرَته. قالوا: ولذلك يقال وجهٌ صَبيحٌ. والصَّباح: نُورُ النَّهارِ. وهذا هو الأصل ثمُ يُفَرَّع. قال الأعشى:

<<به تَرْعُفُ الألفَ إِذ أُرْسِلَتْ  *** غَدَاةَ الصَّبَاحِ إِذا النَّقْعُ ثار ا>>

ويقال أتيتهُ أصبوحةَ كلِّ يومٍ، ولقيتُهُ ذا صَبوح. والمصابيح: الأقداح التي يُصطَبَح بها. ومن الكلمة الأولى: الصَّبَح: شدَّة حُمرةٍ في الشعَر؛ يقال أسدٌ أصبَحُ.

The line of poetry above is by a famous poet who was reciting poetry before and throughout the early time of Revelation, and is reported to have written a poem in Muhammad’s honor, peace upon him. The excerpted line is of an image similar to the one in Verse 4… depicting a battle-field.

vi 

أثر:لـه ثلاثة أصول: تقديم الشيء، وذكر الشيء، ورسم الشيء الباقي.

قال الخليل: لقد أثِرْتُ بأن أفعل كذا، وهو همٌّ في عَزْم. وتقولُ افعل يا فلان هذا آثِراً ما، وآثِرَ [ذي] أثير،

vii 

(نقع:  النون والقاف والعين أصلانِ صحيحان: أحدهما يدلُّ على استقرارِ شيءٍ كالمائعِ في قراره، والآخر على صوتٍ من الأصوات.

فالأوّل نَقَع الماء في مَنْقعه: استقرّ. واستَنْقع الشيءُ في الماء. والنَّقُوع: ما نُقِع في الماء، كدواءٍأو نبيذ. والمِنْقَع ذلك الإناء. والمِنْقَعكالقُدَيرة للصَّبيّ يُطرح فيه اللَّبن ويُطعَمه. والنَّقيع: شرابيتَّخَذ من زَبيب، كأنَّ الزَّبيب يُنقَع لـه. والنَّقِيع: الحَوْض يُنقَع فيه التَّمر. والنَّقِيع والنَّقْع: الماء الناقع. وماءٌ ناقعٌ كالنَّاجع، كأنَّه استقرَّ قرارَه فكَسَر الغُلَّة. وكذلك النَّقُوع. والنَّقيع: البئر الكثيرة الماء. ونَقْع البئر الذي جاء في الحديث: ماؤها، كأنها قرارٌ له. والأنقوعة: وَقْبَةُ الثَّرِيد. وقولهم: “هو شَرَّابٌ بِأَنْقُعٍ، أي مُعاوِدٌ للأمر مرَّةً بعد مرة.

viii

كند:  يدلُّ على القَطْع. يقال كَنَدَ الحبْلَ يكنُده كَنْداً. والكَنُود: الكفور للنِّعمة. وهو من الأوَّل، لأنَّه يكنُد الشكر، أي يقطعُه. ومن الباب: الأرضُ الكَنود، وهي التي لا تُنبِت.

ix 

شد: يدلُّ على قوةٍ في الشيءِ، وفُروعُه ترجِع إليه. من ذلك شَدَدْتُ العقد شَدّاً أشُدُّه. والشَّدّة: المرّة الواحدة. وهذا القياسُ في الحرْب أيضاً. ])

ومن الباب: الشّديد والمتشدّد: [البَخِيل. قال الله سبحانه: {وَإِنَّهُ لِحُبِّ الخَيْرِ لَشَدِيدٌ}  [العاديات 8].])

والأَشُدُّ: العشرون، ويقال أربعون سنة. وبعضهم يقولون لا واحدَ لها، ويقال بل واحدها شَدٌّ.

x

Literally chest/ head ‘Sadr.’

 

xi 

 حصل:هو جمع الشيء، ولذلك سمِّيت حَوصلةُ الطائر؛ لأنّه يجمع فيها. ويقال حصَّلت الشيءَ تحصيلا. وزعم ناسٌ من أهل اللغة أنّ أصل التحصيل استخراجُ الذهب أو الفضّة من الحجر أو من تراب المَعدِن؛ ويقال لفاعله المحصِّل.  

November 2nd, 2013

Qur’an 99: 1-8 page 599

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!

Yusuf Ali’s explanation of this Chapter.

Muhammad Asad’s explanation of this Chapter.

Laleh Bakhtiar’s explanation of this Chapter.

سورة إذا زُلزِلت/ الزلزال (i)

‘The Earthquake’

  

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

This Surah is is close in date to the last: it is generally referred to the early Madinah period, though it may possibly be of the late Makkan period.

It refers to the tremendous convulsion and uprooting which will take place when the present order of the world is dissolved and the new spiritual world of Justice and Truth takes its place. The symbol used is that of an earthquake which will shake our present material and phenomenal world to its very foundations.”

 

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

MOST PROBABLY revealed in the early part of the Medina period (itqan), although some authorities regard it as a Meccan revelation.“

COMMENTS:

The root-verb ‘zalla-زل‘ is about something spontaneously losing ground (ii).

Although sometimes used to describe delicious, free-flowing water, this word usually brings negative feelings of committing mistakes (faltering, the ‘missteps’ of body or tongue -زلّة لسان), and describes the agitation of one’s mind, and the quaking of the earth.

PAGE 599 ArabicQur’an

In this Chapter, Verses 1-3, tell us about a literal earthquake/ zilzaal (more specific than the general ‘agitation/ quaking’/ zalzalah of the final Hour coming upon people as they are going about their daily affairs, mentioned in Chapter 22 iii).

Here, the Earth herself shall be ‘quaking HER Quake, ‘ and releasing her load (entombed within). Here the Cognizant Human shall be calling out, wondering what is happening to her (.. to Earth. See HQ 36: 51-52, which tells us of the ‘wailing’ emergence of people from the graves, as they acknowledge both the promise of their Creator/ Al RaHmaan, and the sincerity of the Messengers He had sent them).

Verses 4-5 continue describing this scene, and we learn that meanwhile, at that Time, the Earth shall be imparting all (the information) that she knows, in that: It is her Lord Who had communicated TO her, exclusively/ waHi (communicated this information/ the capability to do so). See similar verses where God ‘awHaa’ unto someone (iv).

Verses 6- 8 tell us about Cognizant Humans:

At that Time/ Upon that Day, they shall ensue (out of the earth) separately (v), to be shown their deeds:

Then, whoever works an atom’s weight of Good sees it,

and whoever works an atom’s weight of Ill (bad) sees it!”

Awe-striking words!

Other verses also tell us that our deeds shall be presented to us (see HQ 3:30, which tells us how people feel when they see their deeds).

Our deeds.. presented to us: We have to face the deeds themselves as well as the results they had caused.. at a time when there is nothing we can do, but feel regret or relief. Nothing.

But now, at the time I am writing this… and now as you, dear Reader, are reading this.. NOW there is A LOT we can do!

May our BEST deeds be the ones presented to us, and may God overlook and forgive our worst..